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  • ISSN: 2373-9312
    Volume 4, Issue 5
    Research Article
    Ujuanbi AS*, Tabansi PN, and Otaigbe BE
    Introduction: Congenital heart diseases (CHD) are leading causes of childhood morbidity and mortality especially in developing countries. Community-based studies are important in ascertaining the burden of the disease.
    Objectives: The study was set out to determine the prevalence and types of CHD among primary school children in Port Harcourt Local Government Area (PHALGA) of Rivers State, Niger Delta, Nigeria.
    Methods: A total of 1,712 primary school pupils were selected by multistage sampling from twelve schools in PHALGA. A questionnaire was used to obtain information from pupil’s parents on their child’s biodata and symptoms suggestive of heart disease. General physical and cardiovascular system examinations were carried out on each selected pupil, following which those with symptoms and/or signs suggestive of heart disease had echocardiographic confirmation of their cardiac status.
    Results: The 1,712 subjects were aged 5-14 (mean 8.48 ± 2.30) years. 874 (51.1%) were females while males were 838 (48.9%). The study revealed that 31 pupils had congenital heart diseases confirmed by echocardiography, giving a prevalence of 18.1 per 1,000 pupils. The commonest cardiac defects seen were acyanotic CHD in 30 (96.8%) pupils while cyanotic CHD was seen in only one (3.2%) pupil. Among the acyanotic CHD, atrial septal defects (83.9%) followed by ventricular septal defects (9.7%) were the commonest. CHD occurred with higher frequency among females (64.5%) and among the younger age group of 5-9 years (61.3%) though these were not statistically significant (p>0.005).
    Conclusion: Cardiac examination as part of compulsory health screening at primary school entry will help detect children with CHD, reduce delay in diagnosis for intervention, avert debilitating morbidity and assure a better quality of life.
    Case Report
    A Hunt*, J Gregory, M Karim, JP Bouffard, and CA Mazzola
    First identified in 2012, the histone 3 mutation H3.3K27M significantly affects the prognosis of children with anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) and other gliomas. Tumors with this mutation tend to be more aggressive and localize along the midline, behaving like diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPGs). Surgical options are often limited because of the deep location of these tumors coupled with their invasive and infiltrative nature. Additionally, AA with this histone mutation is more resistant to chemotherapy and radiation treatment. Given this aggressive and resistant behavior, children with thalamic and/or hypothalamic AA with this mutation have a lower than expected life expectancy of roughly 1 year. In this case report of an 11-year-old female with anaplastic astrocytoma and the H3.3K27M variant, the authors describe the diagnostic importance of genetic and/or immunohistochemistry testing to identify this mutation. We review the relevant literature about the H3.3K27M mutation and discuss the implications that the mutation may have on the management of children with these neoplasms.
    Lisa A. Rynn* and Victoria Mui
    We report a full term infant with features of encephalocele and amniotic band sequence identified at time of birth and presenting with infection. The case highlights a unique presentation of encephalocele, as well as, the significant difficulties of caring for severe congenital malformations in developing resource-poor countries.
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