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  • ISSN: 2373-9312
    Volume 9, Issue 3
    Review Article
    Iqbal Akhtar Khan* and Hamza Iltaf Malik
    Human heart, “a wondrous magic casket”, has been believed to be the seat of intelligence, emotion and sensation in ancient scriptures and non-Abrahamic religions. According to monotheistic religions, it has psychological, moral and spiritual functions. It could either be healthy or diseased. The modern scientific research has proved that an emotional brain is formed long before a rational one, and the heart has its own independent complex nervous system known as ‘the brain in the heart.’ The heart sends out electromagnetic field which controls our emotions. Whereas the theory of cellular memories states that memories, as well as personality traits, are not only stored in the brain but may also be stored in organs such as the heart, it has been reported that the heart transplant recipients seem to be the most susceptible to significant changes in personality, the possible mechanism being the transfer of memory through heart. The heart also manufactures and secretes oxytocin, referred as “love or social-bonding hormone”. Moreover, its role in cognition, tolerance, trust and friendship and the establishment of enduring pair-bonds has been well recognized.
    Research Article
    Carolina Soares da Silva*, Matias Epifanio, Vanessa Adriana Scheeffer, Melina Utz Melere, Cíntia Steinhaus, Marília Rosso Ceza, Amanda Rodrigues Sari, Fernanda Coradini Noal, Fernando Borba de Araújo, and Cristina Helena Targa Ferreira
    Objective: Studies have shown that one of the intrinsic causes of dental erosion is tooth exposure to hydrochloric acid as a consequence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). The study aims to evaluate the occurrence of dental erosion in pediatric patients with symptoms suggestive of GERD and/or GERD confirmed by esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD).
    Materials and methods: Patients referred for EGD were selected for the study from May 2016 to June 2018. Patients who presented erosive esophagitis were defined as having GERD. The dental examination was performed shortly after EGD. The Basic Erosive Wear Examination (BEWE) was used to classify the degree of dental erosion. A medical history was applied to the parents or legal guardians of the patients in order to evaluate the diet and the presence of symptoms suggestive of GERD.
    Results: A total of 122 patients was included, and erosive esophagitis was found in 28 (22.9%), of them. Of these, 27 (96.4%), presented dental erosion, showing an association between dental erosion and erosive esophagitis (p <0.05). The higher the degree of erosive esophagitis, the higher the mean BEWE index. The presence of symptoms suggestive of GERD was not associated with the severity of dental erosion.
    Conclusions: This study showed the existence of the relationship between GERD, confirmed by the presence of erosive esophagitis in EGD, and dental erosion in a pediatric population. The presence of symptoms suggestive of GERD did not prove to be associated with the severity of dental erosion.
    Edilene Araújo Pamplona*, Beatriz Nayanne Machado da Silva Ferreira, Raquel Ferreira Sá, Renan Alex Fernandes de Oliveira, Milena Lins da Cunha Dias, Rossana Karla Gois Ferreira, Sheva Castro Dantas de Sousa, Ana Carolina Miranda de Luna, and Chiara Svendsen de Menezes
    Introduction: COVID-19 mainly affects the respiratory system and leads to flu-like symptoms, which can rapidly evolve to more severe conditions and death. The pediatric age group is susceptible to COVID-19, although the rate of affected patients is lower and most are asymptomatic.
    Objective: Analyze the scientific literature regarding COVID-19 clinical manifestations in the pediatric age group.
    Method: A systematic review was carried out by searching for articles published between December 1, 2019 and July 28, 2020 in the PubMed®, Scopus, ScienceDirect, Lilacs, MEDLINE® and Cochrane Library databases using the terms “COVID- 19”, “Child”, “Clinical characteristics” and “Hospitalized” and their correlates. Data extraction was done with the use of a standardized form and a descriptive analysis was performed with frequencies and percentages calculations to verify the prevalence of clinical manifestations.
    Results: Thirty-two studies were included, and it was observed that fever was the predominant symptom, followed by coughing and diarrhea. Among the other symptoms, sore throat, fatigue, headache, dyspnea/difficulty breathing, runny nose, nasal congestion, pneumonia, expectoration and tachypnea, in addition to gastrointestinal symptoms, stood out. However, the presence of asymptomatic patients was noted in most of the studies analyzed.
    Conclusion: The symptoms of COVID-19 in children, although hospitalized, are mild to moderate in the vast majority. Serious cases and those that need intensive care have been observed in few studies, which may be associated with the favorable outcome of COVID-19 in pediatrics.
    Felipe B. Arcadepani*, Deborah Yafah Goldshmidt, and Thiago M. Fidalgo
    Objective: To investigate the correlation between adverse physical health events and bullying victimization among adolescents, using as independent variables bullying victimization, parental awareness, parental support, close friends, and classmates in school.
    Methods: Data for the present study are cross-sectional and were derived from the 2009–2010 Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (HBSC) study in the United States (US). A total of 12,642 adolescents, between 10 and 17 years, are included in the study sample. The outcome, the independent variables, and the confounders were transformed into dichotomous variables. Bullying victimization, adolescent’s perception of parental awareness about his/her life (parental awareness), parental support, close friends, and classmates in school were the independent variables studied. All analyses were conducted at the software Stata 13.0. Results are presented with odds ratios and coefficient values and the 95% confidence interval.
    Results: The majority of the study population consisted of men (53.1%), with a mean age of 12.94 (SD 1.78). The linear regression model presented significance for the variables: bullying victimization (OR: 2.80; 95% CI: 2.35-3.33), parental awareness (OR: 2.14; 95% CI: 1.34-1.80), parental support (OR: 3.18; 95% CI: 1.98-2.68) and classmates in school (OR: 1.99; 95% CI 1.07-1.44). Close friends were not statistically significant. (OR:1.21; 95% CI 0.73-1.28).
    Conclusions: Bullying victimization, no parental awareness, no parental support, and no classmates in school is correlated with adverse physical health events, such as headache, backaches, feeling low, irritability, feeling nervous, feeling dizzy, difficulties sleeping and stomachache.
    Laura Dresch Neumann*, Matias Epifanio, and Cristina Helena Targa Ferreira
    Objective: To evaluate the dietary intake and the anthropometric profile of infants on a diet eliminating cow’s milk proteins (CMP), compared to infants on a free diet.
    Method: Prospective cross-sectional study carried out with infants aged 6-24 months, in the gastroenterology and childcare/pediatric outpatient clinics of a children’s hospital. The anthropometric evaluation included weight, height, head and arm circumferences, tricipital and subscapular skinfolds, ranked by z-score according to the World Health Organization. Dietary intake was assessed by two 24-hour food recalls, expressed in energy, carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, vitamins and minerals and was compared with the dietary reference intakes (DRIs).
    Results: 43 infants on a CMP-elimination diet and 47 infants on a free diet (12.66 ± 4.97 months) were evaluated. When compared to the group on a free diet, the group on an elimination diet showed shorter height (p=0.026) and lower intake of vitamins B1 (p=0.020), B2 (p=0.000), B5 (p=0.007), B12 (p=0.025), D (p=0.006), except for vitamin K (p=0.009), and minerals calcium (p=0.000), phosphorus (p=0.000) and zinc (p=0.030). The intake of most nutrients with significant differences was in accordance with or greater than the recommendations of the DRIs in the exclusion diet group, with the exception of calcium and vitamin D, which was lower in at least one of the daily intake recommendations.
    Conclusions: Infants on a CMP-elimination diet were shorter and showed lower intake of some vitamins and minerals compared to the group on a free diet, although within the normal range according to the DRIs, except for calcium and vitamin D.
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