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  • ISSN: 2333-7079
    Current Issue
    Volume 6, Issue 2
    Review Article
    Marinko Marusic and Antonio Klemencic*
    Dysregulation of the immune system and overexpression of TNF-α represents the basis of the action of TNF-α inhibitors. Adalimumab, as well as the other tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) inhibitors, has brought a revolution in the treatment of the immune-mediated inflammatory disease (IMIDs). Over the last two decades, this therapy has made a significant improvement in the quality of life for an ever increasing number of patients. Since its regulatory approval in 2002, adalimumab has shown a remarkable success and, although was the third TNF-α inhibitor that was put on the market, is now the leading agent among the TNF-α inhibitors. This review article discusses about key characteristics of the adalimumab, such as its production, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, indications, immunogenicity and side effects.
    Christopher J Nash and Timothy B. Erickson*
    The timber rattlesnake (Crotalus horridus), also known as the canebrake rattlesnake or banded rattlesnake, is native to eastern regions of North America. Classified as pit vipers, these snakes can deliver enough venom in one bite to be life-threatening, although they uncommonly victimize humans and even more rarely cause death. This review describes an historical and medical perspective of this once plentiful, and now endangered species of snake. Several factors explain the timber rattlesnake's endangered status including, low reproductive rates, late maturing age, long generational time, disease, and potentially its sensitivity to certain climactic conditions such as temperature and altitude. In addition, human activities which encroach on the snake's natural habitat have vastly reduced the timber rattlesnake populations contributing to their demise. The venom of the timber rattlesnake is multifaceted with some species containing both neurotoxic and hemorrhagic/proteolytic properties. When indicated, administration of the ovine-derived antivenom Crotalidae Polyvalent Immune Fab (FabAV), rapidly reverses coagulopathy and can be life-saving. Continued investigation is needed to characterize the nature and changing geographic distribution of the timber rattlesnake, its toxicological effects, and ultimately its preservation.
    Research Article
    Jennifer Parker-Cote and William J Meggs*
    Background: Toxic effects of snakebites consist of local toxicity at the site of the bite and systemic toxicity, with coagulopathy and neurotoxicity occurring, depending on the species and composition of the venom. Research has established that the lymph system is the mechanism of systemic spread of venom
    Methods: PubMed searches were conducted for articles on snakebites and lymph system.
    Results: The reviewed articles describe experimental studies of lymphatic inhibition on systemic toxicity of snakebites. Methods of inhibition include splints, ligation of peripheral lymphatic channels, compression methods to inhibit lymphatic flow, and pharmaceutical lymph inhibitors. All of these methods result in reduced systemic toxicity.
    Conclusions: Experimental studies establish that inhibition of lymph flow by several mechanisms results in reduced systemic toxicity of snakebites.
    Takrim Hasnat, Jannatul Nasma Rupa Moni, Seema Binte Alam, Tanjina Afrin Nithu, Shahanaz Akther and Arkajyoti Paul*
    Hyperglycemia prompts disability of muscle development and advancement of diabetes mellitus (DM). It is a dynamic condition in which the body winds up impervious to the ordinary impacts of insulin and additionally step by step loses the ability to deliver enough insulin in the pancreas. It is also related with modifiable way of life hazard factors. While there is currently no cure for type 2 diabetes, the condition can be managed through some medications. Here we choose to review a paper NATURAL PRODUCTS AND PLANTS AS POTENTIAL ANTIDIABETIC DRUGS where different medicinal plants were suggested which gives good result against Type 2 Diabetes. We have selected the plant Aconitum carmichaelii which gave remarkable anti-diabetic effects on mice. The glycans present in this plant exhibited pronounced hypoglycemic effects in normal mice. So, we selected this plant for in silico computational analysis to examine its effects on Alpha- amylase and 1,6 Fructose bi-phosphate protein enzyme. This two protein enzyme plays important role in controlling the blood glucose level. Also to analyses the effects of bio availabilities of these plant in human body.
    El-Nahhal Yasser*
    The study characterized the reaction types of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) with different pesticides and suggested immediate medical treatments for poisoning cases. We retrospectively investigated the medical records of 120 poisoned cases. AChE activities were categorized into 3 groups. Extreme inhibition (EI), (307-769 u/L), severe inhibition (SI) (770-2888 u/L) Moderate inhibition (MI) (3000-4999 u/L), and less inhibition (LI) (5000-7000 u/L). These data were associated with occupational pesticides exposure to organophosphorus insecticides (OPI), carbamate insecticide (CI) s and general pesticides (GP). Medical treatments showed that class of EI did not show any cure signs with atropine administration whereas other classes (SI, MI and LI) showed positive responses with atropine administration. Class of EI showed positive sings with Toxogonin administration after several dose. These data suggested AChE in EI class has a strong affinity to bound with OP forming irreversible and/or stable complex, whereas in CI and GP, AChE has low affinity and form reversible non-stable complexes. It can be concluded that Toxogonin can be given to EI cases of AChE activity level as successful and immediate medical treatment for OP poisoning cases. On the other case atropine is the best antidote.
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