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  • ISSN: 2333-7079
    Current Issue
    Volume 6, Issue 5
    Review Article
    Bartosz Kudlinski*, Pawel Marcinkowski, Pawel Robak, Ilona Kauf, and Roman Jaeschke
    Status epilepticus can lead to multi-organ failure through the damage to the central nervous system. Its most severe forms require treatment at an intensive care unit with deep sedation and electroencephalograph (EEG) monitoring. Deep sedation is associated with the need for mechanical ventilation, invasive monitoring of vital functions, artificial nutrition and other intensive care procedures. This type of therapy is associated with numerous complications that may be an independent risk factor for death, such as: sepsis, pneumonia, hemodynamic and metabolic instability, altered level of consciousness when recovering. We report a case of refractory status epilepticus which developed likely as a delayed consequence of carbon monoxide poisoning and which was treated with deep thiopental sedation monitored by bispectral index (BIS).
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    • William W. Ishak*, Jonathan Dang, Steven Clevenger, Shaina Ganjian, Samantha Cohen, and Matthew Kagan
      Cannabis use is on the rise leading to the need to address the medical, psychosocial, and economic effects of cannabis intoxication. While effective agents have not yet been implemented for the treatment of acute marijuana intoxication, a number of compounds continue to hold promise for treatment of cannabinoid intoxication. Potential therapeutic agents are reviewed with advantages and side effects. Three agents appear to merit further inquiry; most notably Cannabidiol with some evidence of antipsychotic activity and in addition Virodhamine and Tetrahydrocannabivarin with a similar mixed receptor profile. Given the results of this research, continued development of agents acting on cannabinoid receptors with and without peripheral selectivity may lead to an effective treatment for acute cannabinoid intoxication. Much work still remains to develop strategies that will interrupt and reverse the effects of acute marijuana intoxication.
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      • Short Communication
        Ana Valeria Vieira de Souza*, Uiliane Soares dos Santos, Camila Hernandes, Flavio Jose Vieira de Oliveira, and Ana Maria Soares Pereira
        Lippia grata Schauer is a native Caating a species and presents high antimicrobial potential due to the presence of essential oils. Considering that different cultivation conditions can alter the content and chemical composition of essential oils with direct interference in antimicrobial activity, the objective of this work was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of Lippia grata essential oil obtained from plants submitted to different management conditions in the field. The cultivation experiment was conducted with plants submitted to different doses of organic and mineral fertilization, in the presence and absence of irrigation and the essential oils were analyzed by CG-MS / CG-DIC. The antimicrobial assays were conducted against the strains Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. The major substances found in the essential oil were carvacrol, followed by thymol and the proportion of these compounds varied according to the type of fertilization and the presence or absence of irrigation. The essential oils extracted from plants of L. grata submitted to different cultivation conditions presented variation regarding the antimicrobial activity, being effective against all pathogens evaluated and superior to the commercial antibiotics used. Fertilization with 0.6 t a1 of the mineral fertilizer and the intermediate dose of 40 t ha-1 of organic matter revealed excellent antimicrobial activity for the evaluated microorganisms.
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        • Folz BJ*
          Reports about Sildefanil (Viagra®) and Epistaxis are anecdotal. This review could identify only three reports in world literature with a total number of four patients. In a 20 year period since the Viagra® approval by the FDA in 1998, this seems to be a rather low number of cases. All persons developed Epistaxis secondary to Viagra intake, two persons had also taken Cialis®. None had Erectile Dysfunction, all had consumed the PDE-5-inhibitors to enhance their sexual performance, the undesired side-effects therefore rather affects consumers than patients. On the other hand this may be an indication that Viagra® is a very safe substance, since no reports about multimorbid patients and Viagra-related Epistaxis have been published so far.
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          • Mini Review
            Joseph F Gennaro Jr*
            Perhaps the first account of immunization to snakebite in the west is the Greek historical record of king Mithridates, who is said to have immunized himself for protection. This procedure is still called mithridazation but is useless in most viper bite situations and can be considered medically unsound (though some recent accounts advocate it). In the immunized state the ‘’memory’’ of the antigen resides in the body in special cells, so that when a challenge occurs (the presence of antigen), the body is capable of mounting a physiological response and in the span of 10 to 14 days can produce sufficient antibody to provide a resistance. In a snakebite, the reverse is actually true. The ‘’challenge’’ consists of the maximal dose of the ‘’antigen’’ and the disease falls full on the organism before significant ‘’antibody response’’ is possible, According to the literature the first genuine antivenom was produced in 1895 by leon Charles Albert Calmette. His paper ‘’Contribution a etude des venins, des toxins, et des serums antitoxiques.’’, describes the production of monovalent antiserum to the Indian combra, Naja naja, Calmette was a French scientist working in the Indochina branch of the Pasteur Institute, who did this work after a visit to Paris in which he witnessed the work of Pasteur, who at the time, was interested in the work of Edward Jenner and its Jenner with whom I would like to begin.
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