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  • ISSN: 2333-7079
    Early Online
    Volume 6, Issue 6
    Research Article
    Oscar Gonzalez-Flores*, Porfirio Gomora-Arrati, Marcos Garcia-Juarez, Jose Luis Encarnacion-Sanchez, Francisco Javier Lima-Hernandez, Kurt L. Hoffman, Ricardo Vazquez-Ramirez and Carlos Kubli-Garfias
    Synthetic progestins (SPs) Levonorgestrel (LNG), Medroxyprogesterone Acetate (MPA) and Megestrol Acetate (MGA) are more potent than progesterone to induce estrous behavior (lordosis and proceptive behaviors) in estrogen-primed rats. To test the role of progesterone receptor (PR) and estrogen receptor (ER) in the sexual response in rodents induced by SPs, three experiments were designed. In experiment 1, four dose levels (range 1.3-1300 ng) of the three SPs were infused into the right lateral ventricle (icv) to estrogen primed rats. All SPs induced significantly sexual behavior, and calculated ED50s showed that MPA was the most effective progestin to elicit the estrous behavior, followed by LNG and MGA. In experiment 2, the estrous behavior stimulating effects of all three SPs (at a dose of 1300 ng) were significantly reduced by the antiprogestin RU486, indicating that binding to the PR is required for these effects. Interestingly, tamoxifen (TMX) blocked the sexual behavior induced by MPA and MGA, but failed to block significantly the sexual behavior response induced by LNG. In experiment 3, was assessed the role of the Src/MAPK system in the facilitation of estrous behavior induced by the three SPs. Icv infusion of either PP2 (Src inhibitor) or PD98059 (MAPK inhibitor) prior of 1300 ng of SPs infusion fail to inhibit both lordosis and proceptive behaviors induced by the three SPs. The results point clearly toward an active role of the PR in the sexual behavior display elicited by the three SPs. Besides, the ER seems to be required only for the progesterone derivatives MGA and MPA and unnecessary for the androgen derivative LNG which is readily reduced at C5. The active system Src/MAPK related in some extent with the PR in neoplasic cells is not linked with the present results in the central nervous system.
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    • Short Communication
      William L. Nyhan* and Gary Eddey
      Lesch-Nyhan-Nyhan disease is (LND) an X-linked recessive disorder of the purine salvage pathway characterized by hyperuricemia. Untreated patients develop gout and uric acid nephrolithiasis. The disease also characterized by cognitive impairment, dystonia and dramatic behavioral manifestations, including the hallmark of features of severe, involuntary and wide ranging self-injurious behaviors, most characteristically biting, leading to loss of tissue about the lips and fingers.
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