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  • ISSN: 2333-6668
    Current Issue
    Volume 5, Issue 2
    Review Article
    Esther Perez-Torrero*, Sandra Elisa Garcia-Tovar, Leticia Esmeralda Luna-Rodriguez, and Mario Enrique Rodriguez-Garcia
    Cactus of the genus Opuntia is native to several arid regions, around the world such as Africa, Australia and in the Mediterranean. This cactus is a peculiar plant; their chemical composition, depend on the interaction with the climatic conditions and stages of maturity, their anatomy and physiology permits it survive under stress of extreme climate conditions, being an alternative harvest for regions where the availability of water is limited. Cactus prickly pads also can prevent or ameliorate the soil erosion and deforestation, because their adaptation to the water scarcity, also. The present review has been carried out to achieve and analyze the main knowledge in the implicated factors for the establishment of structural and chemical content of Opuntia. ficus-indica (L.) Miller. Prickly pads when fresh young are, have been consumed in Mexico and Unites States, cooking by different methods. Furthermore, the older prickly pads are frequently used as forage for livestock, especially when other fresh forage is scarce in dry station. Organic foods i.e. prickly pads, maintained without chemical substances like pesticides and insecticides treatments are alternative food sources since they contribute to human health maintenance, i.e. for prevent diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia. The Cactus offer an opportunity to carry out studies related to their environmental interactions, nutritional values. Taking benefit of the fiber content of young prickly pads or the mineral content from oldest one pads, because their fluctuations along the life cycle at extremely environmental conditions, related with the plants sense a stressful environment conditions.
    Abdel Rahman A Alzandi*
    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are one of the most widely used nanoparticles involved in ecosystem. Silver nanoparticles were used in the preparation of new pesticide and insecticide formulations. However, the effect of AgNPs is on vascular plants is still unclear. In this paper the effect of Ag NPs (100nm) on germination, root elongation as well as nucleic acids and proteins contents of barley plant was evaluated. Our findings obviously indicate that germination percent was not affected after all treatments whereas seedling length, nucleic acids and proteins contents were highly affected after treatment with the higher concentration of nano particles (100 ppm) as compared to the control (untreated). Our investigations suggest that plant cells as an important marker of the ecosystems need to be included when evaluating the overall toxicological impact of the engineered nano-particles in the environment.
    Zaiba Hasan Khan, Brijesh Kumar, Pinky Dhatterwal, Sandhya Mehrotra, and Rajesh Mehrotra*
    Changing environmental conditions are limiting crop productivity and, hence, there is an urgent need to develop stress tolerant plants. Engineering of Cis-regulatory elements (CREs) is an effective strategy to design such plants. Transcription factors (TFs) can be used effectively to manipulate gene expression. However, overlapping expression has been observed for several stress-responsive TFs. In order to design improved plants by Cis-engineering, we first need to understand the complex regulatory network of TFs and the cross-talk between them. Advances in systems biology have enabled us to visualize plants from a holistic view during the abiotic stress. The current review discusses major transcriptional regulatory networks involved in abiotic stress tolerance, and how a better understanding of these networks may help in designing stress-tolerant plants. Finally, the review mentions some potential approaches to generate stress-tolerant crops to enhance crop productivity, which is the ultimate goal of all plant genetic engineering studies.
    Agata Leszczuk and Ewa Szczuka*
    The aim of the study was to investigate changes in the localization of arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) during ovule development in Fragaria x ananassa Duch. cv. Mount Everest. For the first time, the localization of AGPs was studied in a hybrid Fragaria x ananassa, which is a facultative apomict. The AGP epitopes were revealed with the use of JIM13 mAb after immune cyto chemical reaction and immune gold labeling. The fluorescence after immune cyto chemical reaction and gold particles indicated the presence of AGPs, which changed during the consecutive stages of ovule development. AGPs were localized in the walls of nucellus cells lying on the possible route of pollen tube growth, functional megaspore, and embryo sac. Such a distribution of AGPs resembles the localization of these proteins in plants that reproduce in the amphimiticmode. Moreover, the AGPs were observed in the cell walls of the embryo. In addition to the wall of the embryo sac, they were also present in the cytoplasm of the egg cell, near the secondary nuclei in the central cell, and in the endosperm. In the nucellus cells, AGPs were observed in the area of starch grains. The possible functions in Fragaria x ananassa of AGPs are discussed.
    Research Article
    Janete Oliveira S. Valim, Natlia C. Teixeira, Maria Goreti A. Oliveira, and Wellington G. Campos*
    The presence of glucosinolates (GLS) in Brassicaceaeis thought to be the first line of plant defense against a variety of insects and pathogens. Influence of drought stress on constitutive GLS has been documented; however, its effect on herbivory-induced GLS is poorly known, especially with respect to different feeding guilds of insects. Collard (Brassica oleracea L. cv. acephala) plants were grown in well-watered, slightly water-stressed and severely water-stressed conditions. Then, the plants were subjected to infestations by two host-specific herbivores, the leaf-chewing Plutellaxylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) or the phloem-feeding Brevicorynebrassicae L. (Hemiptera: Aphididae). Concentration of total leaf GLS decreased in severely drought-stressed plants; however, in no water regime collards had their total GLS increased due to damage by both specialist insects. Thus, we did not found evidence for total GLS induction by insect damage, irrespective of insect feeding guild or level of plant water-stress. Naturally occurring droughts or deliberate submission of collard crops to water limitation may not affect herbivore-induced GLS, but constitutive resistance against insect attack may be reduced.
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