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  • ISSN: 2333-6668
    Early Online
    Volume 6, Issue 5
    Research Article
    Thin Thin Mar, Ei Phyu Kyaw, Tin Mar Lynn, Zaw Ko latt, and San San Yu*
    The research work comprises two parts. The first part deals with rapid composting process utilizing cellulolytic nitrogen-fixing bacteria, including Azotobacter beijerinckii, Azotobacter vinelandii and Lysobacter sp. on different types of composting materials. In Control, straw was used as composting material. The second Treatment 1 (T-1), straw, water hyacinth and cow dung were used as composting materials, while Treatment 2 (T-2), straw, water hyacinth and cow dung were used as composting materials and treated with cellulolytic nitrogen-fixing bacteria for rapid composting. The process was completed in 16 weeks (four months), 8 weeks (two months) and four weeks (one month) respectively which showed T-2 took a short duration of one month. During the process, variation in temperature, pH, volume, moisture content, C:N ratio were observed in different treatments. In the second part, the finishing products of T-2 was used as a peat carrier for formulation of biofertilizer named as Test and the effectiveness of this formulated biofertilizer on the growth and yield of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) was conducted. In this formulated biofertilizer, the three cellulolytic nitrogen-fixing bacteria, Sacchromyces cervisiae and Bacillus megaterium were used. The Test biofertilizer showed its effectiveness in the yield of eggplant fruits compared with the yield using formerly formulated biofertilizer with highly significant difference level (p <0.2).
    Yohannis Abera* and Addisalem Yasin
    This study was aimed to investigate the diversity and abundance of woody plant species of Assosa forest gene bank. An inventory was made to collect the required data and sample plot of size 20mx20m quadrant was used for this particular study. Sixteen quadrates of sample plot were systematically laid down with an interval of 100 m along four transect lines. Shannon-Wiener index was applied to quantify species diversity, richness, and evenness. A total of 44 woody plant species representing 34 genera and 26 families of were identified. From 44 identified woody plant species 948 number of individual plants were counted and recorded. Most of woody plant species counted and recorded from the Assosa forest field gene bank were belongs to Combretaceae family. The current study reveal that Assosa forest field gene bank has more diverse (H=3.17), unevenly distributed (E=0.46) and abundance of all individuals of plant species.
    Dereje Mosissa*
    The present study entitled The use and management practices of medicinal plants by Shinasha people the most marginalized ethnic groups in Metekel Zone, Northwest Ethiopia was an ethnobotanical study aiming to summarize and analyze the current knowledge of the Shinasha people on the medicinal properties of local plant species. This study is based on a survey involving a total of 99 informants (aged 20 and above). Data from the survey was analyzed following analytical tools for ethnobotanical methods as preference ranking, direct matrix ranking, paired comparison were performed and medicinal use value, fidelity level index and informant consensus factor were calculated. The study concludes that of 65 medicinal plants recorded, 48% are used for treatment of human maladies and 22% for livestock treatment. These medicinal plants include mainly Clutia abyssinica Jaub. and Spach, Cordia africana Lam., Croton macrostachyus Del., Solanu nigrum L., Datura stramonium L., Justicia schimperiana (Hochst. ex Nees) T. Anders., Ximenia Americana L., Sida schimperi Hochst. ex. A. Rich, Kalancheo petitiana A. Rich, Clematis hirsuta perr and Guill, Gardenia ternifolia Schumach & Thonn., Paveonia uren. Scav, Dichrostachys cinerea L., Grewia ferruginea Juss., Stereospermum kunthianum Cham., Portulaca quadrifida L. Etc. Majority of the plants used were herbs and the parts used was the leaf. Moreover most of the prepared remedies were administered to the patient orally in the form of drink. Justicia schimperiana and Nicotiana tobacum have high fidelity level index (FLI). Bersama abyssinica was the most preferred plant species for the treatment of snake bite and Withania somnifera for evil eye. Direct matrix ranking showed Cordia africana as the most utilized multipurpose plant species. The study area possesses diverse natural vegetation. However, its environment is under serious threat mainly due to agricultural expansion, free grazing, wildfire, timber logging etc. Hence, intensive awareness creating on the use and management systems, sustainable utilization of medicinal plants and their in-situ and ex-situ conservation should be recommended.
    Al Amin*, Khandakar Md. Iftekharuddaula, Animesh Sarker, Sharmistha Ghoshal, Tamal L. Aditya, Ashraf H. Talukder, Farah Sabrin, Morsaline Md. Billah, and Bertrand Collard
    Submergence is one of the important abiotic stresses incurring substantial loss to rice production in Bangladesh. With a view to improving submergence tolerance in BR22 (popular name Kiron) is a promising antioxidant enriched, high yielding and strongly photosensitive transplanted Aman rice variety, BRRI dhan 51 was used as a donor parent to introgress the SUB1 QTL conferring submergence tolerance. Molecular marker within submergence tolerant QTL (SUB1), flanking markers and evenly distributed background markers were utilized in a marker aided selection program to develop advanced breeding lines with broad-spectrum tolerance to flash flooding submergence. Indel and simple sequence repeats (SSRs) markers were used in the marker assisted backcrossing scheme in BC4F1 and BC5F1 generation. Sub1C173 a gene specific indel marker SUB1 QTL was used to select plants possessing the tolerant genes (foreground selection). The result of recombinant selection also revealed that the size of the SUB1 QTL introgression from the donor parent was estimated as 2.5 Mb. The percentage of recipient genome recovery in the best plant viz. BR10190-3-1-20-3 was 95%. This research work illustrates the successful application of marker-assisted breeding to introgress the submergence tolerant QTLs into the genetic background of BR22.
    Research Article
    Akalu Gebru*
    Evaluation of Grain yield Performance and Quality Parameter of Malt Barley (HordeumVulgare) Variety in Eastern Amhara. Seven malt barley varieties were evaluated with the objective of selecting high yielder and adaptable varieties that fulfill the standards of malt barley quality parameters. The trial was conducted in the high land areas of Eastern Amhara at Legambo, Dessiezuria, Geregra and kone districts in 2014 main crop growing season using RCBD using three replications. Each variety was planted on a plot size of 5m2(2.5m with 2m).Space between rows, plots and replications were 0.2m, 0.5m and 1m respectively. Analysis of variance revealed the presence of highly significant difference (p<0.01) between varieties for days to heading, days to maturity and spike length. Significant difference (p<0.05) was also observed between varieties for plant height, thousand seed weight and grain yield. Variety IBON 174/03 score the highest grain yield (4239), good germination energy (99.02), average hectoliter weight(63.52),protein content(10.52), and good grading size (92.4) were recorded in consistence in all tested location whereas, the lowest grain yield (2228kg/ha) was recorded at Legambo in variety Bahati. From the combine analysis, variety IBON 174/03 have 19.3%and 31% -grain yield advantage over the grand mean (3122.2) and the lowest grain yield Bekoji 1 (2853)kg/ha. IBON 174/03, Sabini, Bekoji-1, Holker and EH1847 fulfill the minimum requirement breweries quality standard. Therefore, IBON174/03 varieties were recommended for further seed multiplication and make import substitution of malt barley and improve the income of farmer in highlands of Wollo barely growing area of eastern Amhara.
    Akalu Gebru*, Firew Mekbib, and Berhane Lakew
    The objectives of this study were to assess the genetic variability of yield, yield related traits and to estimate direct, indirect effects of trait associations. Seventeen varieties were evaluated and subjected to the analysis of variance using RCB design, in Eastern Amhara Ethiopia. The varieties differed significantly for most of the characters and had wide range of mean values, which indicated the existence of variations among the tested varieties. Estimates of phenotypic coefficient of variance (PCV) and genotypic coefficient of variance (GCV) were generally low. The highest GCV and PCV values were recorded on grain yield (51) and plant height (60). The PCV values were slightly greater than the GCV values. Grain yield, plant height, protein content and grain size had relatively high heritability. Grain yield gives high heritability value accompanied by high genetic advance which is good indicator for selection. Grain yield had positively and significantly correlated with date of maturity. Grain yield negatively correlated with protein and positively associates with starch.
    Abdulrahman A. Alzandi*
    Three species of Acacia (A .gerrardii, A. oerfota and A. origena) were evaluated for their ecophysiological behavior characteristics. Succulent, pigments contents, minerals and some metabolic products were determined. The obtained data clearly showed highest value of succulent (9.6%) in case of A. gerrardii. Concerning pigments contents, current investigation revealed high contents of both chlorophyll a (1.72) mg/g fresh weight and carotenoids (0.67) mg/g fresh weight in A. gerrardii as compared to the other two species. The obtained data recorded high content in chlorophyll b (1.36) mg/g fresh weight in A. oerfota as compared to other species. With regard to mineral composition, the obtained data show that the highest mineral percent was Calcium (3.8%) which detected in A. gerrardii followed by Potassium and Magnesium. Generally, A. gerrardii recorded highest percentages of all detected minerals. As regard to metabolic products, A. origena shows highest contents of total carbohydrates (46.47%) as well as total lipids (4.83%) as compared to the other species, while the highest crude protein value (34.77%) was recorded in A. gerrardii.
    Dereje Mosissa*, Melak Agajie, Dejene Reda and Aesho Kefiyalew
    Over the last decade non-native plants have been observed expanding their ranges in Ethiopia and a number of new non-native plants have been discovered. There is concern that with climate change invasive plants could cause ecological and economic damage like that seen in other parts of the world. In order to develop a strategy for combating invasive plants, a baseline inventory of Invasive Alien Plant Species (IAPS) in the study was required. Of all woredas five Woredas in Metekel Zone was selected based on pre-informed level of IAPS infestation, the assessment identified both infestation status and impact of IAPS. Four IAPS namely Parthenium hysterophorus, Lantana camara, Senna obtusifolia and Hyptis suaveolens that threatens native habitats along roadsides, rangelands, rivers and free areas in towns of BGRS. All respondents (100%) agreed about the invasiveness of these four species. Majority of the respondents (96.6%) agreed that the level of its invasion has been increasing from time to time. Majority of the respondents (61.7%) reported that Hyptis suaveolens and Senna obtusifolia has been causing different damage to the community such as minimize the growth of other plants, expand and compete to agricultural, grazing land and communal land, toxicity and health of livestock and also human. The patterns of distribution of these IAPS show that invasion is most pronounced in areas that have received recent road way construction and maintenance of all woredas in metekel zone. Furthermore, populations around bridges and culverts pose a risk to river ecosystems. We also recorded the presence and abundance of IAPS at rest stops, campgrounds, gravel pits and other disturbed areas along major roadsides of Metekel zone. As observed during the assessment frequently cultivated areas, highly grazed lands, frequently maintained roadways, market areas and roads which receive the most vehicle traffic had showed the highest infestation by invasive alien plants species.
    Yohannes Dereso*
    Lowland bamboo vegetation is threatened by cutting, decay of new shoots, mass flowering, agricultural expansion, over grazing, fire and cutting style of which fire is the most leading threat reported. The lowland bamboo forest in the Woreda was flowered in 1998 E.C. The Woreda has patchily distributed vegetation features characterized by Combrutum molle and Entada abyssinica growing in association with Oxytenanthera abyssinica, commonly known as lowland bamboo. The present study is about germination and regenration issues of the multipurpose lowland bamboo inManduraWoreda. Seed germination of the species was found to take on average three to four times faster in Petri-dish than in soils. Two years stored seeds showed less viability, about65% and 2 days slower rates of germination. Mixed soils found to increase seed viability from 37.5% to 68.78%. Number of culms per clump is highest in protected forests and least in wild forests. The percentage natural expansion (reproduction) was highest in cultivated and wild forest habitats. The ability of clumps to produce new offshoots is directly proportional with the clump circumference.
    Rahman MM*, Ivy NA, Mian MA, Rasul MG, Hossain MM and Rahman MA
    An experiment containing shoot regeneration has been conducted at the Laboratory of Breeding Division of Bangladesh Sugarcane Research Institute (BSRI) Ishurdi, Pabna during the period of 2011. The present study was conducted to standardize a suitable protocol of in vitro plant regeneration potentiality of five sugarcane varieties. After shoot proliferation, the mini regenerated shoots were separated aseptically and cultured in MS medium containing five concentrations (viz.1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0 and 5.0mg/l) of NAA for adventitious root induction. The concentration of 5mg/l of NAA produced the minimum (9) days to root initiation the highest number (11.01) of root per culture and the highest number (0.21cm) of root length. All the variety showed the best root forming performance in concentration of 5mg/l of NAA.
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