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  • ISSN: 2333-6668
    Early Online
    Volume 5, Issue 3
    Review Article
    Salicylic Acid Induced Salt Stress Tolerance in Plants
    Salicylic acid (SA) is a phenolic phytohormone acting as signaling molecule and tolerance against abiotic stresses. It plays a vital role within the plant response to adverse environmental conditions similar to salinity. Soil salinity is a major problem of food production because it limits crop yield and restricts use of land previously uncultivated. It plays vital role in plant growth, ion uptake and transport, preventing oxidative damage in plant by detoxifying super oxide radicals, produced as a result of salinity. This review provides the evidence that supports the role of SA during plant growth and development is reviewed by comparing various experiments performed by application of SA under salt stress conditions.
    Rajeshwari V and Bhuvaneshwari V*
    Salicylic acid (SA) is a phenolic phytohormone acting as signaling molecule and tolerance against abiotic stresses. It plays a vital role within the plant response to adverse environmental conditions similar to salinity. Soil salinity is a major problem of food production because it limits crop yield and restricts use of land previously uncultivated. It plays vital role in plant growth, ion uptake and transport, preventing oxidative damage in plant by detoxifying super oxide radicals, produced as a result of salinity. This review provides the evidence that supports the role of SA during plant growth and development is reviewed by comparing various experiments performed by application of SA under salt stress conditions.
    Short Comunication
    Ayan Raichaudhuri*
    ABC transporters are membrane bound proteins involved in the transport of a broad range of amphipathic molecules across membranes. The superfamily of ABC transporters contain highly represented subfamilies and MRPs (ABCCs) are one of them. Plant MRPs like Arabidopsis thaliana MRP1 also transport various glutathione conjugates and heavy metals like arsenic across membranes and is already known to be involved in vacuolar transport of folates. In presence of increasing amount of arsenite (AsIII) salt the plants show less root and shoot growth in Arabidopsis thaliana MRP1 T-DNA homozygous mutants compared to wild type plants. Results showed that wild type AtMRP1 is tolerant against arsenite stress because of AtMRP1 function and earlier results showed MRP1 phosphorylation is a potential regulator in this tolerance. Here phospho-serine antibody cross reacted with Arabidopsis thaliana wild type plant leaf extracts only in absence of arsenite which indicates the change in protein phosphorylation and expression in presence of arsenite. To understand the effects of arsenite on AtMRP1 wild type and mutant plant growth experiments were done. The experiments provided an important insight on AtMRP1 plants under arsenite stress conditions.
    Research Article
    Janete Oliveira S. Valim, Natalia C. Teixeira, Maria Goreti A. Oliveira, and Wellington G. Campos*
    The presence of glucosinolates (GLS) in Brassicaceaeis thought to be the first line of plant defense against a variety of insects and pathogens. Influence of drought stress on constitutive GLS has been documented; however, its effect on herbivory-induced GLS is poorly known, especially with respect to different feeding guilds of insects. Collard (Brassica oleracea L. cv. acephala) plants were grown in well-watered, slightly water-stressed and severely water-stressed conditions. Then, the plants were subjected to infestations by two host-specific herbivores, the leaf-chewing Plutellaxylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) or the phloem-feeding Brevicorynebrassicae L. (Hemiptera: Aphididae). Concentration of total leaf GLS decreased in severely drought-stressed plants; however, in no water regime collards had their total GLS increased due to damage by both specialist insects. Thus, we did not found evidence for total GLS induction by insect damage, irrespective of insect feeding guild or level of plant water-stress. Naturally occurring droughts or deliberate submission of collard crops to water limitation may not affect herbivore-induced GLS, but constitutive resistance against insect attack may be reduced.
    Short Communication
    Grant T. McQuate* and Nicanor J. Liquido
    There are many tephritid fruit fly species worldwide, a number of which pose a threat of introduction and establishment in new areas where they had not previously been present. Tephritid fruit fly larvae feeding in fruits and vegetables can ruin fruits and vegetables for local consumption as well as create concern for risk of introducing fly species to new areas through produce shipments. Using recently updated provisional host lists developed for 11 tephritid fruit fly species that have previously invaded, or have potential to invade, the U.S.A., 99 plant families, and 330 plant genera, are identified which include plant species for which natural field infestation has been documented. Although fruit fly species vary considerably in the range of host plants that they can infest, natural field infestation for one species, the oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis), has been documented in 76 plant families. Knowledge of the host status of different fruits and vegetables is needed in assessing the risk of fruit fly species in imported and exported fruit and vegetable commodities and for developing systems approaches and other mitigation measures to facilitate global trade.
    Research Article
    Zaw KoLatt*, Yang Yaodong and Li Jing
    The coding region of CnFatB1, CnFatB2, and CnFatB3 of coconut was cloned in E.coli DH5a by heat shock method using pMD18-T. After identifying validated positive clones, FatB gene family was sequenced. The nucleotide sequence of CnFatB1 showed 99 % similarity to C.nucifera acyl-ACP thioesterase FatB1, CnFatB2 showed 97% similarity to C. nucifera acyl-ACP thioesterase FatB2 and CnFat3 showed 98% similarity to C. nucifera acyl-ACP thioesterase FatB3 respectively. Expressed vector was constructed by ligating CnFatB1, CnFatB2 and CnFatB3 to linearized pCAMBIA1302 and transformed into E.coli by heat shock. Moreover, expression vector was also transformed into Agrobacterium tumefaciens GV3103. Potential colonies harboring FatB genes were screened by colony PCR, and confirmed by using expression vector as template for PCR and by enzyme digestion using BglII and BstEII. All results showed that CnFatB1, CnFatB2 and CnFatB3 were in expected size.
    Research Note
    Ebigwai JK*
    The need for rapid, reliable and accurate species identification is one if the goal of taxonomy. This is often achieved by the use of morphological characters. Regrettably, it is often fraught with unreliability. The application of numerical taxonomy has contributed to solving this challenge. Field identification of the five Vernonia species in Nigeria is very challenging. This study applied quantitative measurements of the leaf length, leaf width, petiole length, inter nodal length, twig length, length of mid rib, length of lateral nerves, and width of intra marginal nerves on thirty replicates per each of the five species to confirm significant differences. The species were grown in controlled environment and use of line thread and hand lens was used. The result showed that significant difference among all the species using leaf length existed with a minimum of 102.4 leaves from an individual plant was measured. In the same vein, the study showed that Leaf width was able to separate V. cinerea, length of twig was able to differentiate V. thompsoniana, length of mid rib was able to separate V. amygdalina while petiole length was able to differentiate V. conferta from others. With the exception of leaf length, no other character was able to discriminate V. colorata from others.
    Wentao Sheng*, Xuewen Chai, Yousheng Rao, Xutang, Tu, and Shangguang Du
    Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) is a horticultural homology of medicine and food with health care. The entire chloroplast (cp) genome of asparagus was sequenced with Hiseq4000 platform. The complete cp genome maps a circular molecule of 156,699bp built with a quadripartite organization: two inverted repeats (IRs) of 26,531bp, separated by a large single copy (LSC) sequence of 84,999bp and a small single copy (SSC) sequence of 18,638bp. A total of 112 genes comprising of 78 protein-coding genes, 30 tRNAs and 4 rRNAs were successfully annotated, 17 of which included introns. The identity, number and GC content of asparagus cp genes were similar to those of other asparagus species genomes. Analysis revealed 81 simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci, most composed of A or T, contributing to a bias in base composition. A maximum likelihood phylogenomic evolution analysis showed that asparagus was closely related to Polygonatum cyrtonema that belonged to the genus Asparagales. The availability of the complete cp genome sequence of asparagus provides valuable information for chloroplast genetic engineering and phylogenetic analyses in Asparagales.
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