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  • ISSN: 2333-6668
    Early Online
    Volume 8, Issue 1
    Research Article
    M. Shunmuga Sundari, A. Benniamin* and V. Irudayaraj
    Chromosome study on Tectaria zeilanica (Houtt.) Sledge which is confined to south India shows the presence of 80 regular bivalents in each spore mother cell (n=80, 4x). This is the first chromosome number report for this species from Tamil Nadu and it seems to be of tetraploid sexual species. It has been collected from Elumpilanthottam, Kanyakumari district of Southern Western Ghats of Tamil Nadu.
    Arbind Kumar Choudhary*, Patruni Bhavana, Dibendu Datta, and Kul Bhushan Saxena
    Free filaments of anthers (polyadelphous stamens) and other associated traits such as elongated keel petals wrapped over the wings and the standard considerably delay opening of floral buds, ensuring total self-fertilization in a pigeonpea genotype, ICPL 87154. Inheritance of free filaments and other associated traits of ICPL 87154 were studied in the F1, F2, BC1F1 and BC2F1 generations of its two crosses with high-yielding long-duration pigeonpea varieties, IPA 203 and Bahar. The results suggested that free filaments of anthers in the genotype ICPL 87154 are controlled by double recessive “cleisto” genes, pct1pct1 pct2pct2. Backcross derived advance breeding lines with such selfing attributes showed zero per cent natural outcrossing, thus spontaneously sustaining their genetic purity. Two such lines (RCEA 14-1 and RCEA 14-5) with yield potential comparable to the high yielding parent (IPA 203) were selected for further use.
    Heena Khatoon, Mohammad Yusuf, Mohammad Faizan, Husna Siddiqui and Shamsul Hayat*
    A pot experiment was conducted to observe the response of Vigna radiata plants to auxins (IAA and/or 4-Cl-IAA) and their interaction with 24-epibrassinolide (EBL). At 30-day stage of growth, foliar spray of 10-8 M IAA, 4-Cl-IAA, and/or EBL were given. The plants were then allowed to grow for 45 days and were finally harvested to evaluate plant growth, leaf gas exchange traits and selected biochemical parameters. The plants gave positive response to the hormones (IAA, 4-Cl IAA and EBL) applied alone or in various possible combinations. Combined dose of all the three (IAA + 4-Cl IAA + EBL) generated maximum values for all the parameters observed. The lowest readings were recorded in the plants applied with water solely.
    Daniela Perroni Frias, Jessica Tioma Nakayama, Kelly Yoshizaki, Regiani Carvalho-Oliveira, Teresa Salles Trevisan, Thaís Mauad and Mariangela Macchione*
    Anacardic acid (AA), has been described as potential antioxidant and Nrf2 is knowing as transcription factor responsible for synthesis of antioxidants proteins. The objective this study was verify the power antioxidant of AA, utilized frog palate epithelium as model of mucociliary epithelium and H2O2 as potent oxidative specie:1) Control Group (CG) - Ringer’s solution (RS)/90’ (n=8); 2) H2O2 (100 mM)/90’ (n=14; 3) AA (50mg/kg)/30’ and RS/90’ (n=4); 4) AA (50mg/kg)/30’ and H2O2 (100 mM)/90’ (HA) (n=4). It was studied the mucociliary transport (MT), ciliary beat frequency (CBF), mucus profile (MP) and expression of Nrf2 (nucleus and cytoplasm). MT and CBF were evaluated through Two-Way ANOVA from two factors: time and treatment. MP and Nrf2 localization were evaluated by One-Way ANOVA test or Kruskal Wallis (p<0.05). MT was significant to time and treatment (p<0.001), CBF only treatment (p<0.001). MP was significant between AH and H2O2 for acid mucus (p = 0.008) and vacuoles between H2O2 and CG (p = 0.003). Nrf2 was different with relation nuclei between H2O2 and CG (p=0.048) and H2O2 and AH related with cytoplasm (p=0.003). AA showed to have a protective effect against reactive oxygen species without requirements of transcription factor Nrf2 translocate to nucleus.
    Review Article
    Michele Aresta* and Angela Dibenedetto
    The need to cut the CO2 immission into the atmosphere is pushing scientists and technologists to discover and implement new strategies that may be effective for controlling the CO2 atmospheric level (and its putative effects on Climate Change-CC). One option is the capture of CO2 (from power plants flue gases or other industrial processes) for avoiding that it can enter the atmosphere. The captured CO2 can be either disposed in natural fields (geological cavities, spent gas or oil wells, coal beads, aquifers; even oceans have been proposed) or used as source of carbon in synthetic processes.
    In this paper we present the options for CO2 utilization driven by solar energy and make an analysis of a variety of solutions for the conversion of large volumes of CO2 by either combining it with H2, that must be generated from water, or by directly converting it into fuels by electrolysis in water, or else by integrating catalysis and biotechnology for an effective conversion of CO2. A CO2-H2 based economy may address the issue of reducing the environmental burden of energy production, also saving fossil carbon for next generations. The enhanced growth of aquatic biomass is not discussed in this paper.
    Research Article
    Azam MG*, Iqbal MS, Hossain MA, Hossain J, and Hossain MF
    The analysis of genetic variability and divergence was carried out for nine field peas genotype in the Pulses Research Center, Ishurdi under Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI), Bangladesh. The experiment was conducted randomly in complete block design (RCBD), with 3 replicas. Observations were recorded on different yield and yield contributing characters. All cultivars showed considerable differences in their performance, indicating the presence of extensive changes in genotypes for most parameters. The highest yield of pods was BFP 11015, followed by Bagha local and Jhikargachha local. The PCV for all the characters was uninterrupted from their respective GCVs. High GCV as well as PCV were observed for the number of pods per plant, 100 seed weight, powdery mildew severity and pod yield, indicating the existence of a broad genetic basis. The High values of heritability with high genetic advance over percent mean were observed for all traits except days to maturity. Plant height and maturity days showed a positive correlation and a significant correlation for seed yield and a negative correlation with a character yield of 100 seed weight. By using principal component analysis first 3PCs were presented variance for 92.37% of the total variation. First, two PC’s were used to build the biplot in which the genotypes such as, 1-IPSA motorsuti-3, 2-Jhikorgachha local, 4-Faridpur local, 7-BFP 11016 are scattered in four quadrants representing the most genetic divergence. Considering the yield, BFP 11015 and Bagha local genotypes are recommended for releasing as a variety and Jhikargachha local, Faridpur local & BFP 11016 are using crossing materials for advanced genetic material.
    Fitsumbirhan Tewelde*
    Biodiversity conservation assured through proper timely set study of their status and conservation measure that depends on the type of species at a given time and place of existence. A study to identify the current use and conservation status of plant by the people in afar region was carried out in November 2019 in the systematically selected weredas of the region. A total of 41 respondents were participated from the three study weredas and 39 ethnobotanically useful plants that taxonomically belong to 23 family and 28 genera were identified. The three dominant family of the identified plant species were 22% Fabaceae and Capparidaceae, and 17% Solanaceae. The growth form diversity of the plants was 68% shrubs, 15 % herbs and 6% each climbers and trees. The most used part of the plants and administration method were the leaf part and oral methods respectively. The main challenge of the plant biodiversity in the surveyed werdas were; the existence of rapid invasion of invasive species particularly, prosopis juliflora, Highly pronounced drought and climate change, The nomadic nature of the people in the studied wereda, Low regeneration status of some plant species were the primary threat of the plant in the wereda. Priorities should give for the most threatened plant species used by the local community of the surveyed sites in either of in situ and ex situ conservation sites for their sustainability
    Abebayehu Awoke*
    Coffee is essential natural resource that plays a great role in social, cultural, economic and political values in the study area. However, it is under production constraint and challenge caused by different factors. One of the most challenging factors in coffee production is coffee leaf miner (Leucoptera coffeella L.). This research was aimed to assess Agro-ecological distribution and socio economic impact of the pest in the study areas so as to address the challenges of coffee production using pest management strategies of the pest. Both primary and secondary data were used and total of 147 sample household of coffee farms were used for the investigation. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics like percentage, inferential statistics and frequency rank weight method. The study discovered that the spatial occurrence of the pest is higher in Woinadega followed by Dega and Kolla agro climate zone of study area respectively. Woinadega agro climate zone is suitable for severe distribution of pest. This is because of moist humid and warm tropical climatic conditions which is important for best proliferation or multiplication of pest. However, most of the populations in the area depend on coffee product; the pest reduces yield of coffee in relation to other factors. It is suggested that creating community awareness, strengthening the best traditional and community based management system, introducing improved coffee plant, encouraging local people to participate in the protection and management of the pest could be the possible alternatives to overcome problems caused by coffee pest.
    Review Article
    Zakaria M Sawan*
    The increase in the population in Egypt makes it imperative to explore promising approaches to increase food supply, including protein and oil, to meet the needs of the Egyptian people. Cotton is the principal crop of Egyptian agriculture, it is grown mainly for its fiber, but cottonseed products are also of economic importance. Cottonseed is presently the main source of edible oil and meal for livestock in Egypt. Economic conditions in modern agriculture demand high crop yields in order to be profitable and consequently meet the high demand for food that comes with population growth. Oil crop production can be improved by development of new high yielding varieties, and the application of appropriate agronomic practices. There is limited information about the most suitable management practice for application of N, P, K, Zn and PGRs in order to optimize the quantity and quality of oil and protein of cottonseed. In maximizing the quantity and quality of a crop’s nutritional value in terms of fatty acids and protein, field experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, foliar application of zinc and the use of plant growth retardants (Pix, Cycocel or Alar), on cottonseed, protein, oil yields, and oil properties of Egyptian cotton. From the findings of this study, it seems rational to recommended applied of N, P, K, foliar application of Zn, and the use of PGRs (Pix, Cycocel or Alar), could bring about better impact on cottonseed yield, seed protein content, oil and protein yields, oil refractive index, unsaponifiable matter, and unsaturated fatty acids in comparison with the ordinary cultural practices adopted by Egyptian cotton producers.
    Mini Review
    Rwik Sen*
    Plant stem cells are innately undifferentiated reservoir of cells found in plant meristems which renew themselves and continuously supply precursor cells that differentiate to plant tissues and organs [1,2]. Research has focused on several aspects of plant stem cells but a lot of information about their epigenetic regulations are unknown. Hence, this mini-review of current literature presents elegant next generation sequencing (NGS) technology like ChIP-sequencing, ATAC-sequencing, and RNA-sequencing to understand the epigenetic regulations and mechanisms in plant stem cells (Figure 1).
    Research Article
    Leny C Galvez, Lyndel W Meinhardt, Ricardo Goenaga and Dapeng Zhang*
    Abaca (Musa textilis Née) is a diploid Musa species native to the Philippines that is used to produce abaca fibers. The Philippines supplies 85 percent of the world supply for raw fiber, fiber craft, cordage and pulp, which provide livelihood opportunities for 1.5 million Filipinos. Cutting edge molecular markers is needed to support germplasm management and crop improvement of this understudied crop. The objective of the study is to adapt a set of SNP markers from banana and validate the efficacy of the SNP markers for abaca genotype identification. Using a nano-fluidic genotyping platform, we evaluated 384 putative Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) markers developed for diploid banana (Musa acuminata Colla), based on 62 abaca germplasm accessions. The cross-species transfer of nuclear SNP markers showed a 15.6% success rate, resulting in the selection of 60 polymorphic SNPs. The generated SNP profiles enabled accurate identification of all tested abaca cultivars and detection of homonymous naming mistakes. Cultivars with a background of inter-specific hybrid (e.g. M. textilis x M. balbisiana) were differentiated using multi-variant analysis and Bayesian stratification. These selected SNP markers will be highly useful for downstream applications in abaca industry, including cultivar identification, nursery accreditation, and authentication of abaca product and protection of intellectual property rights.
    San San Yu* and Matthias S Ullrich
    The use of rhizobacteria associated with plant roots in extreme environments could be a promising strategy to overcome the limitations of crop production induced by soil salinity. In the present study, salt tolerant-phosphate and zinc solubilization bacteria were isolated from the salt-affected rhizospheric soil samples of various agricultural sites. Among 13 isolates could solubilize phosphate, the three most efficiency isolates P-10, P-11 and P-14 were selected based on zinc and phosphate solubilization potential. The partial sequence of 16S rDNA genes and phylogenetic tree indicated that P-10 related to Bacillus subtilis, P-11 related to Bacillus pumilus and P-14 related to Bacillus safensis respectively. These three isolates could survive and solubilize inorganic phosphate and zinc up to 2M NaCl. Regarding percent solubilization index (PSI) and quantitative measurement, P-11 was found as the most potent isolate for both phosphate and zinc solubilizing potential. This is first report for Bacillus safensis which could solubilize tricalcium phosphate and zinc oxide under salt-stress condition. In addition the stress tolerant genes of OtsA and OtsB for P-14 were isolated.
    Anjan Chandra Sharma*
    To overcome food deficit, food security is very important to feed the world population. For this reason, agricultural scientific research needs to conduct more precisely. Advanced, precise and quick techniques can help to develop crop varieties very effectively. In agricultural research sector haploid and double haploid plant regeneration by anther culture can provide significant results. Many researchers and scientists have been succeeding to release new crop varieties with this method. If this method can combine with other advance research techniques such as genetic engineering, OMICS technology, bioinformatics, improved protocols etc., more desirable results will be found.
    Review Article
    A. Benniamin*, M. Bagath Singh, S. Sundari, D. Jesubalan, and A. Amirtham
    The thelypteroid fern Thelypteris Papilio (C. Hope) K. Iwats. (Thelypteridaceae) is widely distributed in tropical, subtropical and warm temperate regions. The chromosome counts made so far from India are diploid sexual (n=36) (Loyal 1961, Khullar et al. 1988, Manickam 1984, Manickam & Irudyayaraj 1988, Raj & Manickam, 1987). Tetraploid sexual cytotype has been reported only from Sri Lanka (Manton & Sledge, 1954). In the present study Octoploid cytotype (n=144) of this plant collected from Kolli Hills, Tamilnadu, was observed for the first time Thelypteris papilio (C. Hope) K. Iwats, the tropical Asian thelypteroid fern, is cytologically known from India and Sri Lanka only with the presence of diploid sexual in India (Western Ghats and Western Himalayas) and the tetraploid sexual in Sri Lanka. The Sri Lankan tetraploid plant, Christella papilio var. repens Sledge, has also been treated as Thelypteris sledgei Fraser-Jenk. In India, this species is distributed in Eastern/Western Himalayas and Western Ghats. During the recent exploration of pteridophytes on the Western Ghats of Goa, India, the tetraploid cytotype of Thelypteris papilio with erect rhizome has been cytologically confirmed with the presence of 72 regular bivalents in Spore Mother Cells. The cytological data from North India, South India and Sri Lanka shows the latitudinal pattern of distribution of the diploid and tetraploid cytotypes. Thus, tetraploid cytotype is present in Sri Lanka towards the equator with tropical climate in contrast to the diploid cytotype which is present in the Western Himalayas, little away from the equator with temperate climate. Interestingly, on the Western Ghats, the diploid cytotype is present on Southern Western Ghats (Tamilnadu) in contrast to the tetraploid cytotype on the Northern Western Ghats (Goa). Since the cytomorphological characters (rhizome and ploidy) are not consistent with the discovery of the present tetraploid cytotype with erect rhizome, the treatment of tetraploid cytotype with creeping rhizome as distinct species is not valuable.
    Research Article
    April Nwet Yee Soe*, May Sandar Kyaing, San Thandar, Moe Moe Myint, Seinn Sandar May Phyo, Honey Thet Paing Htway, Khaing Phyo Wai, and Khin Pyone Yi
    Saline agriculture encourages the use of salt-tolerant rice to maintain rice productivity, which is one of the solutions to the saline soil problem. In this study, the screening of salinity tolerance at the seedling stage of rice genotypes was carried out on the basis of morphological and molecular characterization. 21 rice genotypes along with the tolerant check (Pokkali), were screened using Peter nutrient solution with salinized (6 dSm-1 NaCl), and non-salinized (control), conditions. For phenotypic observation, four parameters such as shoot length, root length, shoot fresh weight and root fresh weight were used for salinized and non-salinized conditions in hydroponic system. The International Rice Research Institute’s modified standard evaluation score (SES), was used to assess the visual symptoms of salt toxicity. A wide range of salt injury was observed in response to 10 days of salt stress, resulting in a range of salt tolerance scores from 3 to 9. Based on the SES scores, percent reduction and stress tolerance index at 6 dSm-1, 8 genotypes were screened as tolerant, 10 genotypes as moderately tolerant and 3 genotypes as susceptible. Twelve SSR markers linked to salt-tolerance QTL were used to evaluate the salinity of genotypes. Across all loci, a total of 31 alleles were observed. Four markers (RM336, RM7075, RM10793 and RM3412b), could differentiate genotypes based on their PIC value and MI index. Only the PSBK rice genotype was genetically related to Pokkali, according to cluster analysis and haplotype analysis. After phenotypic and molecular assessment, 6 genotypes were identified as tolerant, 11 genotypes as moderately tolerant and 5 genotypes as susceptible.
    Gemechisa Olana* and Berhanu Sime
    Organic Agriculture is a production system which avoids or largely excludes, the use of synthetic fertilizers, pesticides, growth regulators, and livestock feed additives. It is proposed as a promising approach to achieving sustainable food systems, but its feasibility is also contested. We use a food systems model that addresses agronomic characteristics of organic agriculture to analyze the role that organic agriculture could play in sustainable food systems. Among the basic types of organic agriculture vermicomposting and bio fertilizers are the latest technologies that farmers did not used widely for production. Hence, uses of the latest technologies are very important to achieve food self-sufficiency and the policy should focus on small scale-organic agriculture in addition to promote commercial agriculture. Specifically, the government should control land use for organic agriculture, improve the efficiency of water management and other supports, stimulate awareness of natural resource and environment conservation and encourage activities to maintain community culture of helping one another. Therefore, this review paper was highlighted organic agriculture as a strategy for achieving food self-sufficiency.
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