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  • ISSN: 2333-6668
    Early Online
    Volume 6, Issue 3
    Research Article
    Honey Thet Paing Htway, April Nwet Yee Soe, Moe Moe Myint, Khin Pyone Yi, Nay Nwe Nyein Chan, May Sandar Kyaing, Nwe Nwe Soe Hlaing, Su Myat Aung, Seinn Sandar May Phyo, Yin Min Htwe, Chaw Ei Htwe Maung, and San San Yu*
    Genetic diversity of 60 Myanmar Sein Ta Lone mango accessions from 21 orchards within three locations in Kyaukse District was studied in this research. 9 Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) markers were used to study the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships among the collected mango accessions. Total of 48 scorable bands were observed on amplification with the sizes ranging between 110bp and 369bp. Polymorphic information content (PIC) of 9 SSR markers were 0.265 to 0.74 with an average of 0.421 per marker. The optimal annealing temperature of the primers was 42 to 58C in range. By using UPGMA cluster analysis, it grouped all the accessions from three locations with a genetic similar coefficient between 0.68-0.96. There was no clone in each orchard and the least dissimilarity was ~ 4% in SM orchard in location 1, SH orchard and SPu orchard in location 2 and STM orchard in location 3. In the present study, analysis of genetic study by means of microsatellite markers showed high genetic diversity of Sein Ta Lone mango accessions and a mix pattern of the accessions within three locations.
    Mascarello C, Sacco E, Pamato M, Di Silvestro D, Savona M, Marchioni I, Zappa E and Ruffoni B*
    Lilium pomponium and Lilium martagon belong to the Liliaceae family and in Italy are submitted to a total protection by regional laws in Liguria and Piedmont. The ornamental value of these species is high and they are also used for breeding programs to obtain commercial cultivars. The micropropagation provides an adequate number of plants to be used as mother stock plants and to be re-introduced into the natural habitat. The size of the bulbs coming from in vitro culture is a crucial point to guarantee the good acclimatization of the plants and a suitable aerial part development after transfer to soil. The research was conducted to improve the in vitro growth of bulbs in number and dimensions useful for fast re-introduction. Experiments were carried out to evaluate factors typically conditioning bulb development and enlargement, such as medium salt composition, concentration of indole butyric acid, sucrose, photoperiod and temperature. For L. martagon, the multiplication rate, in term of bulb/explant, is best obtained with the use of WPM salts, with a temperature of 18C and a sucrose concentration of 30 g/L; L. pomponium propagated better in the presence of MS salts supplemented with 30 g/L of sucrose and 0.5 mg/L of IBA, at 24C with a photoperiod of 16 hours of light. Results show that in order to obtain large bulbs is preferable to use salts, at a temperature of 24C, with high IBA and sucrose concentration. The in vitro growth in darkness in L. pomponium ensures higher bulbs weight; after 6 months of ex vitro growth, it was possible to obtain a minimum of 57% to a maximum of 84.5% of plant survival, in a very good growth conditions.
    Zaw Ko Latt*, San San Yu, Ei Phyu Kyaw, Tin Mar Lynn, May Thet Nwe, and Wai Wai Mon
    Three Azomonasagilis, two Azotobacter chroococcum and one Alcaligenes sp. were obtained for the best nitrogen fixing activity. These all strains showed nitrogen fixing activity from screening using Viscolor Alpha Ammonium Detection Kit. Estimated ammonia concentration was obviously higher than other isolates. These strains were selected and evaluated for other beneficial activities. The ability of these strains was that they could grow at 45C on nitrogen free glucose mineral media (NFGMM) but salt tolerance was low. Above 1% NaCl, they could not grow well on NFGMM. Besides nitrogen fixing activity, phosphate solubilizing activity was also detected. 11 ppm of soluble phosphate was given by A.chroococcum (Ey1) and it was the lowest concentration among all strains. A.agilis (M3) gave 20 ppm of soluble phosphate concentration, highest concentration. With the aim of biofertilizer formulation with effective nitrogen fixing bacteria for used in agricultural soils in Myanmar, these six nitrogen fixing bacteria were formulated as bioferilizer. After preparation of biofertilizer for one month, mineral contents of formulated biofertilizer were determined. Total nitrogen (1.49%), total phosphate (0.515) and total potassium (0.475) of formulated biofertilizer were detected. The mineral contents were higher than other fertilizers. Therefore, we postulate that biofertilizer formulated from the six nitrogen fixing bacteria may be effective for application in Myanmars agricultural soils.
    Phazna Devi Takhelmayum, Aravind Setti, Mohan Chandra Kalita, and Indira Devi Sarangthem*
    Rhizosphere soil of Umorok, Capsicum chinense, was collected from juvenile, flowering, and fruiting stages to study the distinct bacteria and plant development associations. Soil samples were collected from three growth stages, serially diluted, and retrieved the pure cultures. Genomic DNA was isolated from the bacteria and amplified the 16S rRNA partial gene sequence for sequencing information. Bacteria were characterized based on the sequencing data by searching in nucleotide database. Phylogenetic tree was constructed to interpret the evolutionary relationship and diversity of the rhizobacteria. Several rhizobacteria were molecular characterized, and 127 novel bacterial strains were identified. Bacterial grouping revealed alphaproteobacteria, betaproteobacteria, gammaproteobacteria, actinobacteria, and firmicutes. Among the phyla, gammaproteobacteria were dominantly present, and majorly Pseudomonas was found. Stage specific dominant bacterial analysis of Umorok confirmed that juvenile stage was associated with 40% of Agrobacterium and Rhizobium, flowering stage was associated with 50% of Pseudomonas and Burkholderia, and fruiting stage was associated with 50% of Burkholderia. Betaproteobacteria were found to be absent in the juvenile stage. Phylogenetic tree was constructed from the representative bacterial strains of each phyla using maximum likelihood method. Phylogenetic tree provided five distinct bacterial phyla and two clusters of gram positive and negative bacteria. The results of this study provided the comprehensive and specific rhizobacterial diversity in three growth stages of the Umorok. During the plant development, rhizobacterial community was changed. The stage specific diversity facilitates the rhizobacterial application in plant growth and health improvement.
    Perspective
    Sultan Ahmed Ismail*
    Among the myriad of soil organisms, earthworms are one of the most vital components of the soil biota in terms of soil formation and maintenance of soil structure and fertility. During feeding, earthworms promote microbial activity by several orders of magnitude, which in turn also accelerate the rates of break down and stabilization of humic fractions or organic matter. Microorganisms are the ultimate decomposers and mineralize in the detritus food chain and in organic matter decomposition. Fresh casts, urine, mucus and coelomic fluid which are rich in the worm-worked soil and burrows act as stimulant for the multiplication of dormant microorganisms in the soil and are responsible for constant release of nutrients into it, which then facilitates root growth and a healthy appropriate sustainable rhizosphere. Generally three species of earthworms have largely been used for vermicomposting, they being Eisenia fetida, Eudrilus eugeniae and Perionyx excavatus; at times Lumbricus rubellus and Lampito mauritii. The process of composting, although shows the occurrence of different microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, phosphate solubilizers and the microorganisms involved in the nitrogen cycle; succession is shown in the quantity of microbes depending upon the nature of the substrate, the age of the compost, the ambience created by the existing microbes to its successors and also the physical and chemical characteristics. Generally microbial population in compost is reported to be Heterotrophic bacteria 463.11 162.26 X 106, Fungi 13.46 2.07X104, and Actinomycetes 44.05 17.11 X 106. The density and diversity of algae increase progressively and the maximum is recorded in the vermicompost. Of special significance are the presences of algae such as Oscillatoria sp, Anabaena sp, and Nostoc sp which are known to enhance soil fertility. Most foliar sprays especially the Vermiwash have several components similar to plant growth promoter substances. Studies in our laboratory have revealed the presence of substances which invariably are associated with plant growth. Personal observations and research have indicated that not just addition of organic inputs but the presence of soil biota led by the endemic earthworms in the soil, in fact, enhances the produce in its quantity and quality.
    Research Article
    Swe Zin Yu, Nwe Ni Win Htet, Thet Su Hlaing, and San San Yu*
    Since recent years, bioethanol has become greatly interested as an alternative to petroleum derived fuel. The recent study aims at searching for effective native yeast strains for bioethanol production. In this study, fourteen yeast strains that were collected from different sources were identified based on carbon and nitrogen assimilation tests and fermentative capacity tests. Among them, five yeast strains could be assumed as Saccharomyces cerevisiae according to the conventional identification. The ethanol and temperature tolerant tests were also carried out. According to ethanol and temperature tolerant tests, the isolate Y3 had the highest temperature and ethanol tolerant level (45C and 10% v/v respectively).
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