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  • ISSN: 2333-6668
    Special Issue on Plant Stress Biology
    Special Issue entitled: Plant Stress Biology
    Qingmei Guan
    Department of Plant Science and
    Landscape Architecture
    University of Maryland
    USA
    Research Article
    Vishal V. Naik* and Baburao A. Karadge
    Abstract: One month old C4 succulent Portulaca oleracea Linn was water stressed for 4, 8 and 15 days (d). There was significant increase in the activities of enzymes, nitrate and nitrite reductases due to 8 d of water stress as compared to control. Activities of the enzymes glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase and glutamic pyruvic transaminase were also increased in the plants water stressed. Significant accumulation of nitrate and nitrite was observed in the water stressed plants. However, there was no significant change in the proline content of the plants. The amount of total soluble proteins was significantly increased in the root and leaves due to 8 d of water stress. Leaf protein profile (SDS-PAGE) revealed that 15 and 16 kD proteins were exclusive in the leaves of plants water stressed for 4 and 15 d. These alterations in the nitrogen metabolism of this nitrophilous plant for the adaptation to water stress have been discussed.
    Tsuyoshi Yamamoto, Hiroki Okuda, Rieko Nozawa, Jun Furukawa, and Kenji Miura*
    Abstract: Aluminum (Al) toxicity is one of the major factors that limit crop productivityin acid soils. Soil acidification enhances the release of Al3+, which enters into root tip and prevents root growth. The improvement of Al resistance is important for increasing crop productivity. In this study, we determined that Al levels were decreased during cold acclimation. According to neutron activation analysis, the levels of 24Na, 38Cl, 42K, 49Ca, and 56Mn were temporally decreased, and the levels were restored during cold acclimation. In contrast, 28Al levels were decreased despite acclimation to cold stress. Furthermore, enhancement of cold tolerance by overexpression of ICE1 in Arabidopsis and tomatoes improved Al resistance. These results suggest a relationship between cold tolerance and Al resistance.
    Umesh R. Pawar* and Panneerselvam R
    Abstract: The effect of NaCl stress on protein content and antioxidant enzyme activity of Xylocarpus granatum was investigated. Salt stress was imposed on 60-days old plants with five different concentrations of NaCl (0, 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 mM). NaCl induced significant differences in quantities of proteins. Nacl stress enhanced activities of SOD, CAT and POX. Further, in isoenzyme studies, 3 SOD isoenzymes (SOD1, SOD2 and SOD3), and 7 POX isoenzymes were detected with the treatment. Increase in antioxidant enzyme activity could be a response to an increased levels of free radicals induced by NaCl. This might have reduced the stress severity and allowing the plant to grow in a mangrove saline habitat.
    Vishal V. Naik* and Baburao A. Karadge
    Abstract: One month old C4 succulent Portulaca oleracea Linn was water stressed for 4, 8 and 15 days (d). There was significant increase in the activities of enzymes, nitrate and nitrite reductases due to 8 d of water stress as compared to control. Activities of the enzymes glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase and glutamic pyruvic transaminase were also increased in the plants water stressed. Significant accumulation of nitrate and nitrite was observed in the water stressed plants. However, there was no significant change in the proline content of the plants. The amount of total soluble proteins was significantly increased in the root and leaves due to 8 d of water stress. Leaf protein profile (SDS-PAGE) revealed that 15 and 16 kD proteins were exclusive in the leaves of plants water stressed for 4 and 15 d. These alterations in the nitrogen metabolism of this nitrophilous plant for the adaptation to water stress have been discussed.
    Mini Review
    Anuluxshy Balasubramaniyam*
    Abstract: The paradigm of the response of a biological organism to exposure to stressor agents is hormetic dose response, in which high doses of a stressor are toxic or harmful but low doses are beneficial. The exploitation of this biological characteristic could enable the efficient use of plants in the fields of phytoremediation and agriculture.
    Review Article
    Cristina Pisani, Randy C. Ploetz, Ed Stover, Mark A. Ritenour1 and Brian Scully
    Abstract: Laurel wilt, caused by the vascular fungus Raffaelea lauricola, is transmitted by the red bay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, and affects many plants in the family Lauraceae. It was introduced into the United States around 2002 through infested packing material arriving in Georgia. In Florida, the beetle and its associated pathogen have moved progressively throughout the state, arriving in the commercial avocado production area of Miami Dade County in 2011. The fungus grows in galleries and adjacent sapwood of host trees, leading to the disruption of water and nutrient flows. Symptoms include streaks of black discoloration in the sapwood with beetle bore holes on stems and branches of affected trees. Wilt symptoms are associated with the production of gels and tyloses in infected trees. The immediate threat to avocado production in South Florida and the possibility of spread to other states has made identification of control measures a high priority. Current research is testing new fungicides, and different strains of entomopathogenic fungi are showing some efficacy against the red bay ambrosia beetle. However, use of resistant avocado cultivars would likely provide the most sustainable long-term solution. As such, screening of candidate resistant avocado germ plasma by artificial inoculation with the R. lauricola pathogen in the field is under way and protocols to facilitate higher throughput screening are also in development. The goal of these efforts is that promising laurel wilt resistant selections with improved horticultural traits and fruit quality for commercial production will be identified.
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