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  • ISSN: 2333-6668
    Volume 1, Issue 1
    October-December 2013
    Marc Libault*
    Gene expression is under the control of transcription factors and various epigenomic modifications of the chromatin such as the methylation patterns of the genomic DNA (gDNA) and various chemical changes of histone proteins. Small RNAs are another important regulator of plant chromatin structure and gene expression [1,2]. The integration of different epigenomic marks (i.e. gDNA methylome, histone modifications) with nucleosome occupancy, pool of small RNA, cis-elements recognized by transcription factors and transcriptome profiling is essential to fully understand how the epigenome and transcription factors controls chromatin structure and gene expression. In plants, histone post-translational modifications and gDNA methylation are reliable marks of euchromatin (transcriptionally active genes) or heterochromatin (transcriptionally inactive genes; for review, [3]). For instance, in Arabidopsis thaliana, 5-methyl cytosine (5-mC) is present predominantly over repetitive DNA sequences (e.g. silent transposable elements) but is also detected in the body of expressed genes [1,3-11]. H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 are mainly associated with actively expressed and repressed/ lowly expressed genes, respectively, and not with intergenic or heterochromatic sequences [7,12,13].
    Sachin Rustgi*
    Wheat supplies about 20% of the total food calories consumed worldwide, feeds approximately half of the global demand for dietary proteins, and is a national staple in many countries [1]. In the United States, the per capita consumption of wheat exceeds that of any other single food grain. Besides being a major source of energy and nutrition it is also a major cause of frequent dietinduced health issues especially celiac disease, gluten sensitivity, food allergies, obesity, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disorder, and colorectal cancer [2-5].
    Million Tadege*
    The leaf lamina (blade) is a highly organized photosynthetic structure in which cells in the upper (adaxial) and lower (abaxial) surfaces are morphologically different associated with different functional specializations.
    Review Article
    Hashemi M* and Sadeghpour A
    Abstract: Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a C4-grass with deep fibrous root systems indigenous to North America. In recent years switchgrass has been considered to be a "model" energy crop due to its high productivity, perenniality, and adaptability to various sites and soils. This paper specifically reviews published works on the effect of cultural management practices on switchgrass establishment, biomass production and composition, dynamic of nutrient and non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) translocation from above-ground to roots and nitrogen-use efficiency (NUE).
    Short Communication
    Wei Zhou1, Daniel E. Jackson2 and Zhanyuan J. Zhang1*
    Abstract: It is now widely accepted that chromatin is a highly dynamic structure that participates in all DNA-related functions, including transcription, DNA replication, repair, and programmed cell death. Chromatin compaction influences plant regeneration and development. In plants, the most popular method of detecting chromatin compaction is immunofluorescence coupled with confocal microscopy. This method has great utility but still has limitations because the chromatin structure is subjected to change during nuclei isolation and treatment. To obtain in vivo status of the chromatin compaction of living cells, we explored a new method for detecting chromatin structure using flow cytometry to measure the chromatin compaction following quick protoplast isolation. This method can reflect the real condition of chromatin compaction in vivo. Using this method, we successfully and reproducibly separated various types of intact chromatin from soybean leaves at different developmental stages. The entire process is comprised of only three key steps: protoplast generation, Acridine Orange staining and flow cytometry. This approach can be completed within 6–8 h from protoplast isolation to flow cytometry measurement and shall be instrumental to plant epigenetic study.
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