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  • ISSN: 2333-6668
    Volume 2, Issue 1
    January-March 2014
    Review Article
    Abdulrahman Mahmoud Dogara*, Aisha Ishaq Jumare
    Abstract: Rice is one of the most important global food crops and a primary source of calories for more than half of the world's population. There are two cultivated and twenty-one wild species of genus Oryza. O. sativa, the Asian cultivated rice is grown all over the world. The African cultivated rice, O. glaberrima is grown on a small scale in West Africa. The genus Oryza probably originated about 130 million years ago in Gondwanaland and different species got distributed into different continents with the breakup of Gondwanaland. The cultivated species originated from a common ancestor with AA genome. Perennial and annual ancestors of O. sativa are O. rufipogon and O. nivara and those of O. glaberrima are O. longistaminata, O. breviligulata and O. glaberrima probably domesticated in Niger River delta. Varieties of O. sativa are classified into six groups on the basis of genetic affinity. Rice production increased steadily during the green revolution era primarily as a result of introducing high-yielding rice varieties. World rice production increased at a rate of 2.3-2.5% per year during 1970s and 1980s, but this rate of growth was only 1.5% per year during the 1990s. The yield growth rate for rice has further declined during the first decade of this century. However, the populations in the major rice-consuming countries continue to grow at a rate of more than 1.5% per year. According to various estimates, world rice production must increase at the rate of 2 million tons per year. To meet this challenge, rice varieties with higher yield potential and greater yield stability are needed. Various strategies for increasing the yield potential of rice include; conventional hybridization and selection, F1 hybrid breeding, modification of plant architecture, and enhancement of photosynthesis. Many genes and QTLs have recently been identified which will assist with rice breeding objectives.
    Research Article
    Ramakrishnan P* and Babu C, and Iyanar K
    Abstract: Divergence analysis of 60 genotypes for ten biometrical traits was carried out using Mahalanobis D2 statistic. The genotypes were grouped into ten clusters. The cluster I was the largest with 30 genotypes followed by cluster II with 15 genotypes, cluster III with seven genotypes, cluster IX with two genotypes and clusters IV, V, VI, VII, VIII and X had accommodated only single genotype each. The inter cluster distances were greater than intra cluster distances, revealing that considerable amount of genetic diversity existed among the accessions. Based on cluster mean, cluster VIII had highest mean values for leaf weight, leaf stem ratio and green fodder yield per plant, cluster V had highest mean values for number of tillers per plant, number of leaves per plant and crude protei content. The accessions GGLC 12 and GGLC 19 may serve as potential genotypes for development of Guinea grass varieties with improved fodder yield and quality.
    Akanmu AO1*, Odebode AC1, Abiala MA1, Aiyelaagbe OO2 and Olaoluwa OO2
    Abstract: This study investigates the phytofungicidal potentials of aqueous extracts of Mangifera indica and Jatropha curcas on the Fusarium pathogens of millet seedlings in southwestern Nigeria. Aqueous extracts of M. indica and J. curcas prepared at 0.15, 0.30 and 0.45 mg/ml concentration levels were evaluated in-vitro using standard methods, while the in-vivo experiment was carried out using soil inoculation method in a completely randomized design with three replications. Data on percentage mycelia inhibition, growth characters, disease incidence and severity were obtained, and statistically analyzed using SAS 9.1 statistical software. Based on the in-vitro experiment, J. curcas significantly (p<0.05) inhibited the mycelial growth of Fusarium pathogens at increasing concentrations better than M. indica. The in-vivo result showed that J. curcas at 0.15, 0.30 and 0.45 mg/ml concentrations significantly (p<0.05) suppressed F. anthophilum, F. verticillioides and F. oxysporum. Similarly, M. indica at 0.30 and 0.45 mg/ml concentrations was observed to show significant (p<0.05) effect on F. verticillioides and F. scirpi. However, both extracts significantly (p<0.05) reduced the incidence and severity of disease caused by F. anthophilum and F. oxysporum at concentration levels tested in comparison to the controls. The inhibitory effects of the extracts were negative and insignificantly (p<0.05) correlated with days of observation in vitro and with the growth characters in vivo. Fusarium spp showed negative and significant (p<0.05) association with disease severity while positive and significant (p<0.05) relationship existed between the extracts and disease severity. Therefore, the botanicals of J. curcas and M. indica were considered effective against Fusarium pathogens of millet seedlings. Hence, they could be employed in large scale farming for sustainable millet production in Nigeria.
    Akmal Asrorov1*, Navruz Sattarov2, Olga Veshkurova1, Abulimiti Yili3, Elvira Sultanova1, Haji Akbar Aisa3, Shamil Khodjayev2 and Shavkat Salikhov1
    Abstract: Cotton plant is susceptible to different pests and deceases and is necessarily treated with pesticides. Insecticides are used most of all pesticides in agriculture worldwide. These chemicals are efficiently used; however they often cause the plant to be more susceptible to pests and deceases. The reason of this phenomenon is explained with the fact that defensive compounds in plant tissues lower. Herein we report the results on the effects of insecticides relating to three classes: carbophos (organophosphate), lannate (carbamate) and sumi-alfa (pyrethroid) on cotton leaf urease, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activities and disulfide bonds amounts. Insecticides were sprayed with the concentration recommended by the producer against cotton pests. Field experiments were conducted on the cotton plant at the prebloom stage and leaf samples were taken on the 10th and 13th days of the treatment. Colorimetric analysis showed that urease and PAL activities in all samples treated with insecticides were lower than the control. Carbophos more strongly affected on the enzymes activities. Carbophos and lannate increased the amount of disulfide bonds, whereas pyrethroid sumi-alfa decreased.
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