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  • ISSN: 2333-6668
    Volume 2, Issue 2
    Review Article
    Bahman Shafii1,2, William J Price1, Timothy S Prather2 and Lawrence W Lass2
    Abstract: Yellow starthistle is an invasive plant species that reduces productivity and plant diversity within the canyon grasslands of Idaho. Early detection of yellow starthistle and predicting its spread has important managerial implications that could greatly reduce the economic/environmental losses due to this weed. The spread of an invasive plant species depends on its ability to reproduce and disperse seed into new areas. Typically, information on the factors that directly affect a plant's ability to reproduce and subsequently disperse seed is not available or difficult to obtain. Alternatively, topographic factors, such as slope and aspect as well as competitive correlates such as vegetation indices related to plant community biomass could be used to model plant survival and seed movement. In this research, several spatial network models incorporating these variables were considered for the prediction of yellow starthistle dispersal. Models will differed in their assessment of plant movement costs, which can be separated into two processes, survival to reproduction and seed dispersal. The candidate models were evaluated based on their predictive ability and biological relevance. Topographical variables, slope and aspect, were found to be significant contributors to yellow starthistle dispersal models, whereas vegetation indices did not improve the prediction process. The optimal model was applied to an area in central Idaho for predicting the dispersal of yellow starthistle in 1987 given a known 1981 infestation.
    Silvy Mathew1*, Jomy Augustine2 and S. John Britto1
    Abstract: Grasses contribute tremendously to the earth's green mantle of vegetation. They are one of the most widely distributed groups of angiosperms with gross morphological complexity. Among flowering plants Gramineae, with their 10,000 species and 620 genera is the fourth largest family of the flowering plants. They owe their importance in the plant kingdom not so much to their multiplicity of species as to their ability to flourish and spread quickly in great areas of low rainfall. Many are cultivated as cereal crops, as ornamentals and as plants of medicinal and industrial importance. Grasslands form an important vegetation type in the high ranges of Western Ghats in the states of Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu, mostly between 1000-2200 m above msl. The species diversity is extremely high in grassland-forest margins that are very frequent in south Indian forest vegetation especially along Nilgiri and Anamalai - High Ranges. The grasslands of South India, especially Vagamon hills are represented as centre of Endemism due to their exceptional bio-diversity. There are 77 species of grasses recognized from the Vagamon hills. Out of the 77 Species of grasses 18 are endemic to Peninsular India. 25 Species of grasses recognized as exotic alien Species in the study area. Also this research has focused on the ecological environment of the study area..
    Ganapati RK1*, Rasul MG 2, Mian MAK2 and Sarker U2
    Abstract: Twenty five genotypes were evaluated for yield and yield contributing characters to observe their variability, associations and direct and indirect effect on yield during Amon season, 2010. Grain panicle-1 and filled grain panicle-1 had high genotypic variance, high heritability, high genetic advance and high genotypic coefficient of variation. Tiller hill-1, plant height and thousand grain weights showed significant positive association with grain yield. Path coefficient analysis also revealed that, tiller hill-1, thousand grain weight and grain panicle-1 had higher direct effects on yield. Genetic variability, correlation and path analysis revealed that tiller hill-1, plant height and thousand grain weights are the most important yield components in rice. Therefore, from the present study it could be suggested that emphasize should be given on these characters for the selection of genotypes for higher grain yield in transplanted Amon rice.
    Kenji Washio*
    Abstract: Seedformationis a survival strategy of higher plants that protects the juvenile embryofrom unfavorable conditionsand facilitates the dispersion of offspring into a new habitat. Plant seedsdo not only benefit the ecological fitness ofreproduction, but also contribute to the staple foods for human nutrition and caloric intake. A typical seed consists ofhighly organized structure, including adifferentiated embryo, anourish endosperm, and aprotective seed coat or test a, but the physiological characters of individual seed considerablyvary among the plant species. In addition, the complex web of environmental and endogenous factors appears to affect the quality and quantity of seed production. The molecular mechanisms underlying seed formation have been uncovered by the recent studies using the model plant Arabidopsis. In this article, we trace the evolutional history of land plants that have acquiredthe abilities to create seed, andintroduce the recent achievements of plant seed biology. Future perspectives to dissect the relevancebetweenstructure and function of plant seeds are also discussed by retrievingthe past information of cytological studies.
    Research Article
    Drought stress severely limits crop productivity and the expansion of crop cultivation worldwide. Plants can react and adjust to water stress by shifting their cellular metabolism and invoking various defence mechanisms, and acquired stress tolerance in plants is often a result of various stress-response mechanisms that act co-ordinately or synergistically to avert cell damage and to re-establish cellular homeostasis. Metabolic adaptation via the de-novo synthesis of glycinebetaine or proline is often regarded as a basic strategy for the protection and survival of plants under drought stress. In the present study, we investigated the biochemical mechanisms of proline and betaine mediated drought tolerance in mustard seedlings mustard (Brassica juncea L.). Before imposition of drought stress, seedlings were fed with exogenous proline and betaine (1 mM, 24 h). Betaine or proline pre-treatment resulted in enhanced oxidative stress tolerance, as indicated by greatly reduced levels of lipid peroxidation. Endogenous hydrogen peroxide levels in proline or betaine pre-treated drought-stressed seedlings were significantly lower in comparision to seedlings exposed to drought stress without pre-treatment. A significant decrease in ascorbate peroxidase, catalase and glyoxalase II activities was found in response to drought stress, whereas dehydroascorbate reductase, glutathione peroxidise and glyoxalase I activities increased significantly. The levels of ascorbate, glutathione and the size of the glutathione disulphide pool increased significantly whereas the glutathione/glutathione disulphide ratio decreased in seedlings treated with drought stress. Importantly, drought-stressed seedlings pre-treated with betaine or proline showed significantly higher ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase, catalase, glutathione S-transferase, and glyoxalase II activities and a higher glutathione/glutathione disulphide ratio than that of the seedlings imposed to drought stress without pre-treatment. This study proved that pre-treatment of seedlings with proline or betaine can modulate the methylglyoxal and reactive oxygen species levels and increase plant tolerance to drought-induced oxidative stress.
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