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  • ISSN: 2378-9328
    Semiparametric Spatial Autoregressive Model: A Two-Step Bayesian Approach
    Authors: Jiaqing Chen, Renfu Wang and Yangxin Huang
    Abstract: Spatial data arise frequently in econometric studies and it is a common practice to analyze such data with spatial autoregressive (SAR) models. This paper proposes a two-step Bayesian approach for inference in the semiparametric spatial autoregressive (SPSAR) model, including the cases for mixed data.
    Role of the Neighbourhood Deprivation in the Adverse Effect of Air Pollution on Congenital Abnormalities
    Authors: Maxime Jeanjean, Kihal Wahida, Cindy Padilla, Esther Kai-Chieh Chen and Severine Deguen
    Abstract: Congenital abnormalities (CAs) remain a major cause of stillbirth and neonatal mortality. The literature has shown that congenital malformations are suggested to have multifactorial determinants, including environmental exposures and socioeconomic patterns.
    Latest Articles
    Review Article
    German Malaga*, MariaSofia Cuba-Fuentes, Leonardo Rojas-Mezarina, Zoila Romero-Albino, Alexandra Hamb, and Valerie A. Paz Soldn
    Health literacy is associated with improved health outcomes. Primary care providers usually provide the majority of care to patients and are also usually the first point of contact for patients within a health system. Wediscuss four strategies to improve health literacy in the primary care setting: 1) Improve clinician communication skills, 2) Usee-Health tools, 3) Promote patient self-management, and 4) Develop supportive systems and caring environments. These strategies are then discussed within the context of low-middle income country realities, such as the case of Peru. There are unique challenges to improving health literacy in low and middle-income countries, but working towards this objective also provides opportunities to strengthen systems and empower patients, and conduct research to determine the impact of different approaches.
    Commentary
    Lily Gutnik*, Beatrice Matanje Mwagomba, Ella Bwanasi, Eleanor Nkosi, Tara Thindwa, Malumbo Chirwa, Victoria Mopiwa, Satish Gopal, and Blandina Khondowe
    In the United States, 5-year survival for women with newly diagnosed breast cancer is 90%, compared with 75% in 1975 [1]. In 1987, only 29% of women over age 40 underwent recommend screening mammography, compared to 64% in 2015 [2].
    Research Article
    Shaarif Bashir, Taimoor Jaffar Ali, Khurram Khaliq, Hamna Nouman, Malik Qistas Ahmad*, Muhammad Usman, Muhammad Junaid Tariq, Muhammad Asad Fraz, Awais Ijaz, Chaudhry Saad Sohail, Arshia Akbar, Muhammad Yasir, Anum Jamal, Muhammad Jahanzeb Khalil, and Muhammad Arsalan Arshad
    Mosquitoes cause more human suffering than any other organism -- over one million people worldwide die from mosquito-borne diseases every year. Not only can mosquitoes carry diseases that afflict humans, they can also transmit several diseases and parasites that dogs and horses are very susceptible to. Mosquitoes can spread viruses like Malaria, Zika, Chikungunya, and Dengue.
    This study provides a better understanding of the amounts spent by households in different areas of Lahore, Pakistan on different measures; how many people are aware of its usage and which methods they find the most useful.
    A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in Lahore, Pakistan. By using simple random procedure, 100 households were interviewed about their expenditure on malaria mosquito nets in the past year. For collecting data, a structured questionnaire was implemented. Expenditure was compared across bed nets, aerosols, coils, manual swatting, indoor spraying, using smoke, and cleaning outside environment.
    Based on data collected from males and females in a ratio 60:40, with most falling in the age group of 18-25yrs, we concluded that 95% of population was aware of mosquito spread diseases and 90% had adopted measures for its prevention. 49% of our study population had an income in range of 30,000-50,000 ($284-474 USD) and belonged to areas which were free from any significant sanitary problems. 57% spent yearly expenditure of less than Rs.5000 ($47 USD) on protective measures while only 8% spent more than 10,000 PKR ($94 USD) yearly. 65% found mosquito repellent to be most effective while mosquito nets being the least. A high proportion of 65% preferred a protective method which is of high quality.
    This survey reveals that on an average, an individual person spends about 1.1% of his yearly family income for mosquito prevention, which is about less than equal to 7000 PKR ($66 USD).
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