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  • ISSN: 2378-9328
    Semiparametric Spatial Autoregressive Model: A Two-Step Bayesian Approach
    Authors: Jiaqing Chen, Renfu Wang and Yangxin Huang
    Abstract: Spatial data arise frequently in econometric studies and it is a common practice to analyze such data with spatial autoregressive (SAR) models. This paper proposes a two-step Bayesian approach for inference in the semiparametric spatial autoregressive (SPSAR) model, including the cases for mixed data.
    Role of the Neighbourhood Deprivation in the Adverse Effect of Air Pollution on Congenital Abnormalities
    Authors: Maxime Jeanjean, Kihal Wahida, Cindy Padilla, Esther Kai-Chieh Chen and Severine Deguen
    Abstract: Congenital abnormalities (CAs) remain a major cause of stillbirth and neonatal mortality. The literature has shown that congenital malformations are suggested to have multifactorial determinants, including environmental exposures and socioeconomic patterns.
    Latest Articles
    Research Article
    Akpor Oluwaseyi Abiodun*
    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explored teenagers perceptions of teenage pregnancy, their understanding of contraceptives and sexuality using the Theory of Reasoned Action. The study was contextual and comparative. Forty teenagers responded to the in-depth interview. Tesch's content analysis method was utilised and the questionnaire was analysed using descriptive statistics. Findings revealed that no concrete teenage pregnancy prevention programme was in existence in the communities. Half of the teenagers had inadequate knowledge of contraceptives and almost all the participants indicated their disapproval for contraceptive usage among teenagers. Only two participants mentioned contraceptives as a preventive strategy for teenage pregnancy. Teenage pregnancy is still a common occurrence in Nigeria and teenage pregnancy intervention programmes are still not visible within the communities hence, government and all policy makers need to make more efforts in the establishment and sustenance of efficient and accessible teenage pregnancy intervention programmes and initiatives.
    Peter J. Neville*, Kim Clark, Jacques Oosthuizen, Shelley Beatty, Maria Fatouros, Samir Mainali, and Ram Sharan Lamichhane
    Public demand for residential land near natural wetlands has risen in Australia without sufficient account being given to the health risks posed by mosquitoes. A study conducted over the 2015-2016 Summer assessed residents' knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding the management of backyard mosquito breeding. Backyard inspections identified breeding habitats and quantified the mosquito fauna associated with residential dwellings. Residents living closer to natural mosquito breeding sites were more likely to regard mosquito management and abatement as a joint responsibility shared with their local government authority and seemed willing to take action within their own residential lot to reduce mosquito breeding potential. As distance from natural mosquito breeding sites increased, resident attitudes seemed to increasingly reflect a view of mosquito control as 'someone else's responsibility'; typically one for government to address. Consistent with this, residents living further from natural breeding sites appeared less likely to identify mosquito breeding potential in their own backyards or to take steps to reduce container breeding capacity. Rather than fear-related communication, public campaigns that emphasize better understanding of mosquito breeding and accurately communicate risks and responsibilities seem important if disease risks posed by mosquitoes are to be mitigated.
    Audrey A. Abelleira*, Amanda M. Morrill, Cheryl Abel, and Carroll-Ann Goldsmith
    An anonymous survey was administered to a convenience sample to investigate attitudes surrounding tobacco cigarette smoking cessation methods in relation to characteristic information, elucidate which patient populations may be more likely to favor unassisted or assisted cessation, and identify areas where further patient education may be necessary.
    Of 131 participants surveyed, 6% were current smokers, 24% former smokers, and 65% never smoked. On average, participants could recall two evidence-based cessation methods. Unassisted cessation (45.8%) and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) (43.51%) ranked highest in familiarity. Unassisted (32.82%), counseling (29.77%), and NRT (23.66%) ranked most effective. Participants were more likely to view physicians as cessation resources compared to pharmacists (p=0.015). Age and education affected whether participants indicated physicians (p=0.003, p<0.001, respectively) or pharmacists (p=0.018, p=0.003, respectively) were cessation resources. Participants over age 60 (p<0.001), without a high school diploma (p=0.004), or current smokers (p=0.053) were more likely to agree that unassisted quitting signified greater commitment. Participants over 60 were less positive about the usefulness of NRT compared to participants ages 18-24 (p=0.009) and 25-30 (p=0.046).
    Review Article
    Gelma Debesa, Tedele Kebeta, and Wubishet Zewdie*
    We reviewed to document epidemiology and public health importance of Zika virus disease. The review was made by searching published paper online about Zika virus disease in different parts of the world. We noticed that the disease is zoonotic and economically important diseases as emerging diseases in different parts of the world. The disease seen and diagnosed in different parts of the world after fist isolated from a rhesus monkey in the Zika forest of Uganda in 1947. In addition, serological evidence of infection was identified in a few animals in Indonesia, including horses, cows, goats and bats. The disease can appear anywhere; where these animals/reservoirs found and environment is favorable for mosquitoes breeding that are the primary vectors for virus in the world. Therefore, scientific communities, authorities and other concerned body need to give attention for the disease as it has public health and economic importance.
    Diouf Massamba*, Diop Mbatio, Kanoute Aida, Sandi Loubna, Cisse Daouda, Lo Cheikh, and Faye
    Introduction: Reduced mobility is a situation of disability due to a reduction in the ability to move in the public space of a person, temporarily or permanently. The aim of this work was to study the architectural accessibility of people with reduced mobility in private dental clinics in Dakar through a research-action.
    Method: This action research involved one hundred people with reduced mobility, fifty dental clinics and fifty dental surgeons.
    The purpose was to describe the clinics environment, to administer questionnaire to patients with reduced mobility (PRM) and to provide dentists with disability information documents. Secondarily, a questionnaire was submitted to them for self-administration. Information included variables related to architectural accessibility, satisfaction with office accessibility and dentist attitudes after information.
    Results: More than 3/4 of the clinics did not have elevators and 92% did not have adapted toilets. More than one fifth of dentists had lost sight of PRM.
    PRM were not satisfied with toilets (74%), comfort (73%) and stairs (59%).
    After awareness, more than 4/5 of the dentists were ready to make home visits to the PRM and 70% had a move for better accessibility.
    Conclusion: Dental surgeons must then ensure the establishment of adapted places for people with disabilities and reserved for their use, accessible communication devices, and access to all parts and equipment of the dental office independently, translating more satisfactorily the reality of an inclusive society.
    Research Article
    Samah K. Nasr Eldeen*, Hussain Alssadh, and Saida Mashharawy
    It is a new study explained the association of sleep quality and dietary intake with academic achievement among Saudi Arabia medical students. Although, the relationship between sleep quality and dietary intake together with academic performance has not been examined in Saudi Arabia; this study examined this relationship among one hundred Saudi Arabian medical students in INAYA medical college, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. We invited volunteer students to respond to a written survey, which asked about their dietary intake habits and sleep quality for 2 weeks before filling out the survey. Various questions of dietary intake and sleep quality were then compared between the students and we recorded the students grade point average (GPA) from the college computer system. We found a significant relationship (p < 0.0001) between excellent academic achievement (GPA) of the previous years of all volunteer students and dietary intake habits and good sleep time.
    Opinion
    GA Matthews*
    Despite very significant increases in funding aimed at reducing the incidence of malaria, WHO has recentlyreported that the declining trend in cases has levelled off. In 2017, the 10 highest burden countries in Africa reported a combined increase of over 3.5 million cases of malaria [1].
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