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  • ISSN: 2378-9328
    Semiparametric Spatial Autoregressive Model: A Two-Step Bayesian Approach
    Authors: Jiaqing Chen, Renfu Wang and Yangxin Huang
    Abstract: Spatial data arise frequently in econometric studies and it is a common practice to analyze such data with spatial autoregressive (SAR) models. This paper proposes a two-step Bayesian approach for inference in the semiparametric spatial autoregressive (SPSAR) model, including the cases for mixed data.
    Role of the Neighbourhood Deprivation in the Adverse Effect of Air Pollution on Congenital Abnormalities
    Authors: Maxime Jeanjean, Kihal Wahida, Cindy Padilla, Esther Kai-Chieh Chen and Severine Deguen
    Abstract: Congenital abnormalities (CAs) remain a major cause of stillbirth and neonatal mortality. The literature has shown that congenital malformations are suggested to have multifactorial determinants, including environmental exposures and socioeconomic patterns.
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    Research Article
    Cristina J. Ramirez-Espejel, Teresa Juarez-Cedillo, and Annia M. Avalos-Mejia*
    Geriatric patients are the population that consumes a greater number of drugs compared to other populations, so the problems derived from their use are also more frequent. This investigation intended to estimate the prevalence and major risk factors for potential DDI among older outpatients who are treated in primary health care. The study population consisted of 384 patients over 60 years of age, who attended at least one medical consultation to the Family Medicine Unit (FMU) No. 28 of the Mexican Social Security Institute (IMSS) from November 2014 to May 2015. Potential drug - drug interactions were identified using the MicromedexDrugInterac software. The number of drugs administered simultaneously ranged from 2 to 22, with an average of 8.3 ± 3.5. 97.1% of the population presented polypharmacy. Of the polypharmacy patients, 81% had at least one potential DDI. 1,563 potential pharmacological interactions were detected, with a mean of 4.1 potential DDI per patient (95% CI 3.6-4.5). Prevalence of potential DDI in a population of older adults was 78.9%, indicating that a high proportion of outpatients treated in primary health care are exposed to at least one potential DDI. Factors found to be associated with the risk of having a potential DDI were: the number of drugs consumed the number of doctors being treated, as well as some categories of drugs. The high prevalence of potential pharmacological interactions in the elderly ambulatory patients seen at the in primary health care, might be a significant health problem but can be prevented by paying more attention to polypharmacy, the type of drugs prescribed and improving the communication between prescribers.
    Asawari Raut*, Atmaram Pawar, Kavya Shaj, and Priti Dave
    Background: Poisoning is a common medical emergency needing prompt medical interventions. The study focuses on pattern of toxic agents, drug utilization, management and outcome in poisonings reported.
    Methods: The cross sectional study was carried out on patients admitted to two urban hospitals in Pune, Maharashtra from January 2014 - March 2016.
    Results: Total 1078 cases of poisoning were reported with male (57.1%) predominance. The cases reported ranged from 8 months to 72 years old in age with a mean (± SD) 37.8 ± 27.3. Intentional poisoning was more common (53%). Route of exposure was mostly Ingestion (72.5%) followed by Bite/Sting (26.4%), Inhalational (0.8%), Injection (0.1%) and Eye (0.1%). Household and agricultural agents (56.4%) were associated with most poisoning followed by Animal Bites and Stings (26.4%). The mortality reported was 9.7%. The management included Supportive treatment, Antidotes, and Enhanced Elimination Techniques. Supportive treatment was mainly with Gastro protective (94.3%) and Anti-Microbial (77.9%) agents. The antidote was used in 70.9% cases and mostly included Anti-Snake Venom (24.4%) followed by Atropine (21%) and Pralidoxime (18.1%). Enhanced Elimination Techniques included Gastric Lavage (76.3%), Nasogastric Aspiration (7.2%), Hemodialysis (0.1%), Activated Charcoal (4.5%) and Eye wash (0.1%).
    Conclusion: The treatment approaches were based on parameters such as route of exposure, Toxic agent involved and age of the patient. The pharmacist can play a vital role in the recommendation of the rational management plan in Poisonings.
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