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  • ISSN: 2378-9328
    Current Issue
    Volume 6, Issue 1
    Research Article
    Mukumbuta Nawa*, Peter Hangoma, and Charles Michelo
    Background: Zambia has a high prevalence of malaria; in 2015 during the peak season, about 20% of the children less than five years old were infected by Malaria parasites. Cognizant of this high burden, the government aims to eliminate the disease by 2021 using adopted guidelines from the World Health Organization Global Technical Strategy (GTS).The technical strategy allows countries to deploy generalized high impact interventions such as Insecticide Treated Nets (ITNs), Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS) and prompt treatment of malaria cases among others to bring down malaria burden to low levels. After which, they can apply targeted interventions on malaria foci in low burden settings to eliminate it altogether and then prevent reintroduction of new infections. This study aimed to model how different types of malaria interventions and at what levels of deployment would bring malaria down to low levels suitable for focal interventions.
    Methods: We obtained secondary data from three waves of the most recent nationally representative Malaria Indicator Surveys (MIS) from Zambia for 2010, 2012 and 2015 and applied multivariable logistic regression modeling to identify significant predictor variables on malaria prevalence. We then conducted post-estimation margins on the model to determine what type of interventions and at what levels of deployment it would take to bring malaria burden down to low levels suitable for focal interventions.
    Results: Increasing IRS and ITNs from the 2015 levels of coverage of 28.9% and 58.9% to at least 80% would bring malaria down from 2015 levels of 19.4% to 16.3%. Including standard housing in the anti-malaria arsenal would augment the fight; increasing standard housing to 20% from the 13.4% in 2015 would bring malaria down to below 15% where accelerator interventions may be implemented for elimination. If the rate of standard housing is increased further to 90%, malaria prevalence can decrease to 10%.
    Conclusion: The impact of current mainstay interventions against malaria may not bring down prevalence to at least moderate levels required for accelerator interventions deployment for focal malaria elimination. Inclusion and increasing of standard housing would augment the fight and bring malaria down to the levels needed for focal malaria elimination.
    Katshiete Mbuisi Eale Brigitte*, Gunnel Andersson, Ntabe Namegabe Edmond, Berthollet Bwira Kaburo, and Annsofie Adolfsson
    Background: Sexual violence (SV) against women is a serious problem and healthcare plays a central role in assisting the victims. The Congolese government has pursued health policies to address the effects of sexual violence and improve healthcare conditions. Its current policy document, the National Health System Strengthening Strategy, aims to reform the health sector in accordance with Health for All.
    Objective: To explore the current health policy that supports healthcare dealing with sexual violence in Goma, in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC).
    Design: A qualitative approach was used in this study. Data was collected through interviews with stakeholders who were involved in the sexual violence health policy development process. They were also involved in reviewing key planning and policy documents that were analyzed using thematic analysis.
    Results: The DRC Governments policy response was as a result of international strategies from the United Nations Security Council. It expresses a clear vision towards medium and long term responses to sexual violence. The respondents demonstrated an understanding of the importance of collaboration among stakeholders or partners as a key element of implementing the national strategy. It was also noted that competition for the limited resources available led to the demoralization of some stakeholders. Nevertheless, the informants acknowledged the positive influence since the intervention of the government.
    Conclusion: Existing government policy limits the development of health services in Goma. This article suggests that the country needs to review its national health policy to reflect the principles of development of health services for all.
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