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  • ISSN: 2378-9328
    Semiparametric Spatial Autoregressive Model: A Two-Step Bayesian Approach
    Authors: Jiaqing Chen, Renfu Wang and Yangxin Huang
    Abstract: Spatial data arise frequently in econometric studies and it is a common practice to analyze such data with spatial autoregressive (SAR) models. This paper proposes a two-step Bayesian approach for inference in the semiparametric spatial autoregressive (SPSAR) model, including the cases for mixed data.
    Role of the Neighbourhood Deprivation in the Adverse Effect of Air Pollution on Congenital Abnormalities
    Authors: Maxime Jeanjean, Kihal Wahida, Cindy Padilla, Esther Kai-Chieh Chen and Severine Deguen
    Abstract: Congenital abnormalities (CAs) remain a major cause of stillbirth and neonatal mortality. The literature has shown that congenital malformations are suggested to have multifactorial determinants, including environmental exposures and socioeconomic patterns.
    Latest Articles
    Research Article
    Gaudi Gerison, and Gigil Daniel Marme*
    Introduction: Immunization is considered as the most effective public health strategy that aims to prevent children from infectious diseases. The aim of this paper is to examine rural parents' perspective of social determinants affecting childhood vaccinations in Oro Bay rural in Oro Province, Papua New Guinea (PNG).
    Method: A descriptive qualitative study design using semi-structured interviews and Memoing was employed with fifteen parents of children under five years old using maximum variation sampling technique with diverse sociodemographic background. Thematic analysis was used to transcribe, de-identify and code data to identify emerging themes.
    Results: This study found that social determinants of health (SDOH) have considerable effect on childhood vaccination programs at Oro Bay communities.
    Conclusion: This paper concludes that rural parents' experiences of children immunisation activities produce a nuanced understanding of how parents in rural villages managed multiple social determinants including individual and health systems characteristics for a successful immunisation program.
    Guillaume Rudasingwa*, Ndagijimana Frank Aimee Rodrigue, Benimana Marie Laetitia, Berimana Gloria, and Nancy Clemence Ishimwe
    Background: Recently, a global health emergency that led to unusual geographical lockdowns and a considerable change in human personal and social activities was caused by COVID-19( the novel Coronavirus), a pandemic(as confirmed by the World Health Organization, WHO) that is believed to have been originated from Wuhan, the capital city of Hubei province in Mainland China in late December 2019. The number of confirmed and death cases is rapidly increasing at an alarming rate in all continents. As COVID 19 is spreading rapidly in every continent, epidemiological data analysis is much useful in mitigating the outbreak and guiding strategies for community situational awareness and intervention. The aim of this study is to provide up to date epidemiological exploratory data analysis and visualization that can be useful in containing, stopping or slowing down the spread of COVID 19 and increase the communitys awareness of this global pandemic.
    Clarence Spigner*
    Despite the proliferation research showing the intersectionality of racism and health disparities in the United States, both seem likely to persist into the next decade. Structural racism is comprised of reinforcing systems of social inequality in accommodations, academia, labor, health delivery, media and criminal justice. This essay observes the intersectionality between academia and health, and argues an overlap particularly within Schools of Public Health reflects a contradiction in their mission or purpose. The top ten Schools of Public Health are located within states representing political and racial ideologies. Such academic research institutions should not be viewed as independent agencies that are divorced or separated from the people, policies and practices that contain them. This essay is a call for all Schools of Public Health, whether in the alleged "top ten" or not, and their respective universities, to lead in abolishing structural racism.
    Commentary
    Peter Pressman, Colin Berry, Anthony Dayan, Roger A Clemens, and Wallace Hayes A
    Much research into public health, whether epidemiological, medical or socioeconomic, is based on modeling techniques which attempt to link the occurrence of a specific disease state treated as a dependent variable with various factors explored as independent variables, usually called 'risk factors'.
    Roderick S Hooker*
    The federal government is the largest single employer of clinically active physician assistants (PAs) in the United States, with at least 5,200 in 2018 [1]. PAs are present within the Departments of Defense, State Department, Veterans Affairs, Health and Human Services, Justice, Homeland Security, and others. Embedded within these cabinet level departments are bureaus, administrations, institutes, services, corps, and other subdivisions. These decentralized government agencies are essentially the employers of PAs (Exhibit).
    Editorial
    Mickael Essouma* and Stephane Ralandison
    Systemic lupus erythematosus predominantly affects women of childbearing age in sub-Saharan Africa as in other regions of the world [1].
    Research Article
    Mounvera Abdel Azizi, Noumedem Anangmo Christelle Nadia*, Yamssi cdric, Sop Foka Eric Igor, Ngongang Ouankou Christian, Simeni Raoul, Tsila Henri Gabriel and Mpoame Mbida
    Background: Malaria is a major public health problem in Cameroon and is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality. This work aimed to assess the malaria situation and associated risk factors among pregnant and non-pregnant women in the town of Foumbot.
    Methods: This was a cross-sectional study and was carried out in Foumbot sub-Division among pregnant and non-pregnant women coming for ANC and consultation respectively in three selected Health facilities. The sample size required for this study was 180 approximately for each group studied that is pregnant and non-pregnant women and a total of 400 women were recruited for the study. Blood samples of the participants were collected by finger prick for the preparation of thick blood smear and Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDTs).
    Results: Out of 400 women examined, 108 were infected with the prevalence of 27%. The prevalence was 33.16% and 20.7% in pregnant and non-pregnant women respectively. The rates of malaria infection according to parity were 58.3% 33.3% 29.9% respectively for secundigravidae, primigravidae and multigravidae. According to the place of residence, the prevalence was 46.29% and 19.7% (rural area); 15.75% and 11.11% (urban area) for pregnant and non-pregnant women respectively. Based occupations, the rate of infection were 24.07% and 8.33% (unemployed) among pregnant and non-pregnant women respectively. Measuring the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnostic tool used for this study, Rapid Diagnostic Test was found to have sensitivity of 92.6% and specificity of 99.3%. Regarding predictive values, this study revealed 8 cases of false positive and 2 cases of false negative.
    Conclusion: The prevalence of infection has not change apart from some false negative and false pasitive recorded. The study also demonstrated that malaria infection associated with pregnancy shows normal symptoms but can also characterized by absence of fever which is the main characteristic of malaria infection. As malaria infection affects the entire immune system, it becomes necessary to integrate antimalarial medication into the management of pregnancy. This will help prevent pregnant and non-pregnant women from running the risk of high parasitaemia and therefore the risk of miss carriage.
    Fasil Abebe, Selenat Getachew, Tesfay Hailu and Haben Fesseha*
    A cross-sectional study has been conducted in Jinka Town to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practices of the community on milk-borne Zoonotic diseases. As a result, a total of 395 study participants from the different socio-demographic backgrounds were randomly selected and voluntarily filled out the semi-structured questionnaire which was distributed to gather the required information from the respondents. The findings show that 60.51% of the respondents knew that milk born zoonotic diseases could be acquired through the consumption of raw milk whereas 36.96% of the respondents prefer to consume unpasteurized milk. Of the total respondents, 34.94 % still have no idea about the preventive measures of milk born zoonotic diseases. 74.94% of respondents in this study did not receive formal training on milk-borne zoonotic diseases. Statistically, there was a strong association of respondents on milk-borne zoonosis (p<0.05) between the educational level and KAP. About (11.90 %) of the respondents shared the same house with the animals. Besides, around (36.96%) of respondents were accustomed to using the raw milk, and about (36.71%) were habitual in giving the children raw milk. According to the study, the overall knowledge, attitude, and practice of milk-borne zoonotic diseases in the study site is not adequate. Thus, community education and awareness-raising programs are therefore needed to further improve the communitys knowledge, attitude, and practice on milk-borne zoonotic diseases.
    Yamssi Cedric*, Noumedem Anangmo Christelle Nadia, Calvin Bisong Ebai, Flore Nguemam Ngoufo, Gerald Ngo Teke, Tangwah Louisa Bihnyuy, Joyceline Dulafe, Tsila Henri Gabriel, Vincent Khan Payne and Helen Kuokuo Kimbi
    Background: Parasitic infection remains a major public health problem worldwide, particularly in developing countries. This study was aimed at determining the prevalence and risk factors associated with gastrointestinal protozoans in persons living in the Ntamuchie community.
    Method: A total of 100 people were sampled in the Ntamuchie community found in Bamenda III. A questionnaire was administered to people who accepted to sign the consent form. The stool samples were evaluated by parasitological methods including, direct wet-mounting, Formalin-either concentration formalin ethyl acetate concentration, for the detection of protozoan infections.
    Result: From a total of 100 stool samples collected and analyzed, 33 samples were infected with at least one species of parasitic protozoans making an overall prevalence of 33.0%. Six different parasitic protozoans were seen with Entamoeba histolytica demonstrating the highest prevalence of 28%, followed by Entamoeba coli with a prevalence of 12 %, and Blastocystis hominis 3 %. Less occurring species were Giardia lamblia and Iodoameoba bustchilii with a prevalence of 2% each and lastly followed by Trichomonas intestinalis with a prevalence of 1%.
    Conclusion: The result of the research indicates that the community of Ntahmuchie is highly contaminated with protozoan parasites. They were recommended to take preventive measures aimed at reducing the environmental contamination with gastrointestinal protozoans as the best prevention against the spread of gastrointestinal protozoans.
    Short Communication
    Suneel Prajapati* and Narasimha Kumar GV
    Corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly contagious and associated with severe acute respiratory infection caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).The first outbreak of pneumonia of unknown cause was reported in Wuhan, China, in December 2019 and now enclasps 216 countries in all around the globe. Rapid transmission occurs due droplet transmission and person to be in close contact with someone who has already infected. The clinical presentation and severity ranging from a mild common cold-like illness, to a severe viral pneumonia leading to acute respiratory distress syndrome that is potentially fatal. Though, beginning of SARS-CoV-2 in China, it spread quickly in European countries and American countries. At present United States of America among most affected countries with corona virus, while more European countries are witnessing a surge in cases. The US replaced China as the country with the highest corona virus cases on 26 March, while more than 92% of the global corona virus cases are currently outside China. Now, these days this deadly disease is extending in India. Despite it, the infectivity rate and case fatality rate of SARS-CoV-2 is still seems to be very low in Asian/African and it may be due to less testing and limited resources of medical facility.
    Systematic Review
    Sukhvinder Singh Oberoi*, Mansi Atri, Sunil chaudhary, Nilima Sharma and Avneet kaur
    Background: Nicotine is an important tobacco constituent that is responsible for addiction associated with the tobacco use. An efficient vaccine would generate antibodies that sequester nicotine in blood and prevent its access to the brain.
    Objectives: The aim of this review was to assess the efficacy of nicotine vaccines for smoking cessation and for prevention of relapse, and to assess occurrence of any adverse events associated with their use.
    Results: Three companies were in early clinical development of an anti-nicotine vaccine: Xenova (TA-NIC), Nabi (NicVAX) and Cytos (Nicotine-Qbeta). The carrier molecules are recombinant cholera toxin B (TA-NIC), an especially selected carrier protein (Nabi) and a virus-like particle VLP (Cytos). None of studies detected statistically significant difference in long-term cessation between participants receiving vaccine and placebo. But an increase in the smoking abstinence has been demonstrated for the individuals with a high titre of anti-nicotine antibody.
    Conclusion: The studies on Nicotine vaccines have shown that these vaccines are effective in short term abstinence from smoking but effectiveness on a long term basis needs yet to be proven. No major side effects have been reported so far with minor side effects at times, limited in most cases to the site of injection and which are of short duration. No nicotine vaccines are currently licensed for use in any country but a number are under development.
    Short Communication
    Fortune O Alabi*, Christopher O Alabi, Jeff Omwenga and Kimberly Finley
    The current pandemic has caused great havoc worldwide, but the greatest toll taken on human lives is in the USA. As of August 20, 2020, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has affected over 23 million people worldwide and has resulted in 180,000 deaths in the USA and over 800,000 deaths worldwide. The healthcare system in the USA ranks among the best in the world at the individual level, but it is subpar compared to many countries in terms of the overall National Health standard. This is primarily because of the lack of universal health care in the USA and huge disparities socioeconomically. In this article, we discuss some of the opportunities that we have learned from the pandemic and some of the challenges for the healthcare delivery system that were exacerbated during the crisis. The increased mortality of African Americans and other minority groups was made obvious, revealing the underlying health disparity that is inherent in our system. We also elaborate on the benefits garnered during this crisis from telehealth and how this channel should be made more available when the crisis is over. We also suggest that the process of medical licensing should be overhauled to hasten the progression of obtaining a medical license in a state once the individual is already licensed in another state.
    Megha* and Renu
    A novel coronavirus (nCoV) with its epicentre in Wuhan, Peoples Republic of China, has emerged as a public health emergency of international concern. COVID-19 has been labelled as a public health emergency of international concern (PHEIC) and the epidemic curves are still on the rise. While China is already on its path to recovery, countries like India, Pakistan, Indonesia, and Bangladesh are experiencing a surge in the number of COVID-19 cases. This short communication summarizes the mortality rate due to covid-19 in Asian countries.
    Research Article
    Haiyan XING* and Wei YU
    The purpose of this study is to examine the change of Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and rearing behavior among migrant children as well as their correlations in the city of Shaoxing, China. By cluster sampling, 149 migrant children had completed the questionnaires in 2014 and 2015. Spearmans correlation was performed to clarify the relationship between change of HRQOL and rearing behavior in migrant children. Multiple linear stepwise regression analytical methods were used to identify the variables that were associated with change of HRQOL. The results showed that total score, physical health, psychosocial health, emotional functional and social functional of HRQOL among migrant children had increased and overprotection of parents was declined. There were negative correlation between change of quality of life (total score) and change of parents rejection or mother overprotection. There were also negative correlation between change of psychosocial health and change of parents rejection and overprotection. The change of quality of life was mostly reflected by change of mother rejection. These data show that HRQOL and negative rearing behavior among migrant children had improved. The change of quality of life was most affected by the negative rearing behavior of parents, especially mothers.
    Commentary
    Vishal Shirke*
    The COVID-19 pandemic called for different measures to help stop its spread within communities. Such measures included the cancellation of any events or gatherings that included a large group of people, distance learning for schools and colleges, shutting down of nonessential businesses, mandating mask-wearing in public places, and enforcing social distances, to a name a few. We saw the COVID-19 cases reach their peak -- the first wave -- from March 2020 to May 2020. The hospitals were overwhelmed during this time and the mortality rate due to COVID-19 during these months (compared to other months) told the tale. As of December 2020, we are seeing an increase of cases again; and with this paper, I hope to shed a light on the first wave that happened -- the horrific number of cases and the higher mortality rate -- to help people see the devastation of it all and how we should take all necessary precautions to avoid a second wave.
    Review Article
    Diana Margot Rosenthal*, Celine Lewis, Michelle Heys, Antoinette M Schoenthaler, Marcella Ucci, Andrew Hayward, and Monica Lakhanpaul
    Background: The first 5 years of life are crucial for optimising growth, health, and cognitive development. However, many children do not reach their full cognitive and developmental potential because of multilevel barriers, including those resulting from poverty and homelessness. This review summarises the evidence characterising the barriers to achieving optimal health and cognitive outcomes, and to accessing health services for homeless children younger than 5 years of age (U5s)-one of the most vulnerable populations in High Income Countries (HICs).
    Methods: For this scoping review, we followed the PRISMA-ScR checklist and CATS framework. We searched Medline, PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, Web of Science, OVID Maternity and Infant Care, and The Cochrane Library (publications dates from Jan 1, 1980, to Jun 23, 2020) using the key words "homelessness", "housing", "paediatrics", "interpersonal relations", "social exclusion", "toddler", "children under 5", "engagement", and "communication and insecurity". The search strategy yielded 3253 articles. Retrieved articles were organised by study design. Because of the considerable heterogeneity of methods and outcomes, we used a narrative synthesis analytic approach. Our outcome of interest was barriers to optimal health and accessing health services, focusing on U5s living in HICs.
    Findings: Twenty-nine full texts were selected in the final synthesis, including primary research studies and systematic or narrative reviews of primary research studies from HICs. There was limited evidence describing links among housing insecurity, health, and cognitive outcomes in U5s. This age group was rarely studied as a discrete group and often combined with older ages (eg, =25 years). The quality of articles varied greatly because of the heterogeneity in study design. Nevertheless, important themes were identified: barriers were described at the individual and family level (eg, ethnicity, immigration status, and fear), system level (eg, policies, poor access to medication, absence of care plan, and no insurance) and community level (eg, transportation limitations and poor housing conditions).
    Interpretation: Although evidence is sparse, further methodologically rigorous research is needed to identify what barriers exist for U5s and their parents in accessing health services, and how this affects the childs health. The multi-level nature of these barriers implies a systems approach may be required. However, more evidence is needed including cross-sector studies and tailored interventions to address these barriers by working directly with experts with experience of social exclusion and their children.
    Adam P Klein, Karen Yarbrough and John W Cole*
    Both stroke and smoking continue to be major public health crises in the United States, with stroke being the third and fourth leading cause of death among women and men, respectively. The goal of this review will be to provide clinicians a succinct overview regarding the epidemiology, economics, and biology of stroke in the setting of smoking and electronic cigarette use. Special attention will be given to the escalating public health crisis of electronic cigarette use, emphasizing mechanistic relationships of stroke and lung injury. Readers will be made aware of the need for continued scientific advancement and study regarding these relationships, as well as the need for improved governmental and public health efforts to curb these ongoing public health crises.
    Research Article
    Volpe Roberto*, Jan Natasa, Volpe Massimo, Bellotti Paolo, Cevc Matija and Bugliosi Rita
    Poor eating habits are one of the main causes of the high prevalence of overweight and obesity in many European children. The project, aimed at encouraging and spreading a healthier lifestyle amongst Italian and Slovenian high school students, was carried out with the Support of The Italian Society for Cardiovascular Prevention (SIPREC), the Slovenian Heart Foundation (SloHF), and the European Heart Network (EHN) and involved high schools and their staff. During the project, we organized seminars on healthy lifestyle for students, which were evaluated through a questionnaire on healthy lifestyle administered before and after the seminars. Moreover, nowadays since adolescents often use video and images to express themselves on social media, an important part of the project were the seminars by film-makers on how to make short videos. Participating students integrated their knowledge of healthy lifestyle (e.g. healthy nutrition, physical activity, not smoking) into making short videos which were evaluated by the national (Italian and Slovenian) juries. The results of the survey (a +57.8% improvement in the Italian students knowledge and a+15.0% improvement in the Slovenian students knowledge that was already quite high before the seminars), the high standard of the short films and the positive answers to the endline satisfaction survey indicate the good level of students education, and the effectiveness of the methods used. What is more, we believe that making short videos as a way of disseminating key messages on healthy lifestyle on social media amongst peers, is an innovative and effective approach when addressing young people, using a language and style that young people, from different countries, can easily understand and relate to. Therefore, in order to reach broader audience, the short films have been subtitled in English.
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