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  • ISSN: 2378-9328
    Volume 1, Issue 2
    Short Communication
    Marie Smith*
    Abstract: In 2006, the American Public Health Association published a policy statement on the public health role of pharmacists with a focus on the major functions of public health: 1) assessment, 2) assurance, 3) prevention and public preparedness, and 4) policy development. These topics align well with the focus on population health in new care models such as Accountable Care Organizations (ACOs), advanced primary care practices, and community-based health teams. Pharmacists can make a valuable contribution to public health initiatives given their unique training and expertise areas. Health care organizations, researchers, public health officials and policymakers need to consider how pharmacists can participate in patient-specific care, as well as public health efforts, at the local, state, and national levels
    Review Article
    Jill M. Manske1* and Erica C. Bye2
    Abstract: The burden of influenza morbidity in pregnant women has led to the universal recommendation for vaccination of women during any stage of pregnancy. Recent analyses on vaccine effectiveness have suggested that current seasonal influenza vaccines are only moderately protective against influenza infection. While the data may be more encouraging during influenza pandemics, the more we learn about influenza vaccines the more we understand that a one-size-fits-all approach may leave segments of the population uncovered. High quality evidence on vaccine efficacy during pregnancy is lacking due to exclusion of pregnant women from placebo controlled randomized studies, low vaccine coverage, and low case numbers. This review discusses recent observations regarding effectiveness, immunogenicity, and timing of maternal vaccination, and outlines some of the knowledge gaps in understanding influenza vaccination in this population. Well-designed and executed studies combined with a thoughtful discussion on including pregnant women in influenza research are needed to increase our understanding of the maternal immune response to influenza vaccines. As new data emerge to inform our understanding, we must remain open to reinterpreting and recalibrating our assumptions, and be prepared to respond with policies and recommendations based on evidence obtained from rigorous, well-designed studies.
    Research Article
    Deepika Shukla*, Deepika Bablani, Aman Chowdhry, Zeba Jafri, Nafis Ahmad and Shashwat Mishra
    Abstract: Scanning the literature reveals that in India there is little data available relating to dental health in mentally challenged. The study aims to determine prevalence of dental caries, oral health status, and periodontal needs in mentally challenged individuals of North Indian population. The cross-sectional study was conducted among patients attending a special education program at Faculty of Dentistry, JMI, and Delhi, India. DMFT Index, Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S) and CPITN index were used to evaluate caries, oral hygiene status and periodontal needs, respectively. The chi-square test was used to compare between categorical variables. Depending on the type of disability, 258 patients were classified into five groups' mental retardation (MR), Autistic disorder (AD), Down syndrome (DS), Cerebral palsy (CP) and other. The overall prevalence of dental caries in the study population was 76%. Among the study groups, DS exhibited highest DMFT and CPITN scores. The oral health status of the mentally disabled individuals is influenced by type of the disability.
    Berthollet Bwira Kaboru1*, Gunnel Andersson1, Catrin Borneskog1, Annsofie Adolfsson1 and Edmond Ntabe Namegabe2
    Abstract: Sexual violence has become endemic in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), but the perspectives of rural communities of the scourge remain poorly researched. This study aims to describe the attitudes and knowledge of rural communities in regard to sexual violence, its occurrence and associated problems in rural communities in the Itebero/Walikale district in the DRC. A descriptive cross-sectional design was adopted, and a structured questionnaire used. Four hundred respondents participated, representing a group of ten villages populated by a total of 10,000 inhabitants. The respondents stated that perpetrators were often men from their own village. The fields were cited as being the place where most of the assaults occurred. A substantial proportion of the respondents lacked sufficient knowledge of the health outcomes of sexual violence. HIV infection and unwanted pregnancies were the most feared consequences. The victims of violence either experienced compassion or suffered rejection, depending on the community groups. Victims were mostly supported by women from their community, followed by husbands, relatives and authorities. Health facilities were the primary sources of support for victims. Rural health facilities need to revolutionise their health education strategies to improve the current situation.
    Takashi Higashiguchi1*, Akihiko Futamura1, Akihiro Ito1, Shinji Yaga2, Takamasa Ohkawa2 and Hikari Ohkawa2
    Abstract: Objective: In these studies, we examined the immediate and delayed effects of the health food called "Inner Power®" in healthy adults during and after physical exercise. Complex supplements contain branched chain amino acids (BCAAs), citric acid, L-carnitine, coenzyme Q10, zinc and various vitamins. Methods: Study I: The subjects were randomly divided into two groups, and subjected to cross-over study of oral administration to alternately in two phases, using complex supplements or a control food in each group. The oral ingestion of the test beverage 30 minutes before the load by quantitative bicycle ergometer, during and after exercise, and the blood concentration level of lactate, heart rate, fatigue were measured after exercise. Study II: we did a cross-over test in the same manner as study. Oral ingestion of the test beverage occurred 30 minutes before exercise, and was then followed by muscle endurance exercise. The measurement was carried out for muscle pain after exercise and muscle fatigue before and after exercise.
    Results: Study I: As the test substance effect, the fatigue and lactate levels were significantly different during and after the exercise.
    Study II: As the test substance effect, DOMS was significantly different at all days. Conclusions: We found that the consumption of complex supplements before exercise had an immediate recuperative effect on exercise-related fatigue and a lasting inhibitory effect on DOMS.
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