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  • ISSN: 2378-9328
    Volume 3, Issue 1
    Research Article
    Ganna M. Shayakhmetova*, Larysa B. Bondarenko, Valentina M. Kovalenko and Volodymyr V. Rushchak
    Abstract:
    Alcohol is well documented to affect male fertility. The association between alcohol use disorders and tuberculosis has long been known and well described. Taking into account that both alcohol and anti-tuberculosis drugs (ATD) could have negative impacts on male gonads, an increase in adverse effects is probable. The study aimed to determine combine effects of long-term alcohol consumption and ATD administration on male rat testes CYP2E1 mRNA and protein expression, DNA fragmentation, spermatogenesis parameters, as well as on male reproductive capacity and antenatal development of its posterity. Wistar albino male rats were divided into three groups: I - control (intact animals), II - chronic alcoholism (15% ethanol self-administration during 150 days): III- chronic alcoholism + ATD (ethambutol, isoniazid, rifampin and pyrazinamide) administration. ombined effects of chronic alcoholism and ATD led to changes in testicular CYP2E1 mRNA and protein expression, as well as in DNA fragmentation processes. These abnormalities were more expressed in alcoholic with ATD co-administration group as compared with alcoholic group. The revealed disorders at levels of testicular genome and proteome caused negative implications on spermatogenic epithelium quantitative and qualitative parameters, sperm count, male fertility, and postimplantational surviving of its offspring. Thus the ATD administration modulated the impact of long-term alcohol consumption on spermatogenesis and aggravated paternal-mediated negative effects on posterity.
    Thomas F. Kresina*, Lisa D. Conder, and Ilana F. Lapidos-Salaiz
    Abstract:
    Alcohol consumption is common globally, with an important impact on public health through the development of alcohol use disorders (AUDs). AUDs span a spectrum from mild to severe, (harmful use to alcohol dependence) all of which contribute significantly to poor health. Screening individuals for AUDs, followed by management of these disorders, are core interventions in HIV care and treatment in developed countries. For people living with HIV (PLHIV) in developed countries, these interventions improve the HIV -related outcomes of quality of life (QoL), retention in care, and anti-retroviral treatment (ART) adherence. This review examines the interventions: screening for and management of AUDs in HIV care and treatment in low and middle-income countries (LMIC), to determine the impact of the interventions on HIV-related outcomes in the areas of morbidity and mortality, retention in care and adherence to ART, QoL, and prevention of ongoing HIV transmission. The body of evidence regarding screening, diagnosis and management of AUDs in HIV care in LMIC indicates that screening for AUDs in HIV primary care or ART clinics identifies patients at-risk for poor clinical outcomes. The management of AUDs in a clinical setting in LMIC has significant impact in promoting ART treatment adherence and retention in care, QoL, as well as, reducing morbidity and mortality and prevention of ongoing HIV transmission in PLHIV.
    Short Communication
    Pedrero-Perez EJ*, Rosana Rodriguez-Gomez, Teresa BenitezRobredo and Jose Manuel Diaz-Olalla
    Abstract:
    Health surveys have important advantages to researchers, but they also have important limitations. Mainly, they are not a method for causal research. Path Analysis is a method that allows application of theoretical models to select or infer causal hypotheses. The aim of this study is to find a model of directional relationships between the variables in the Health Survey which is a component of the Study of Health of the City of Madrid. Results show a consistent relationship between active leisure and indicators of mental health, as well as the perception of health related quality of life. Symptoms of poor mental health, specifically health habits and health-related quality of life, correlate with morbidity and mortality. The health of urban populations could be improved through the development of programs which include simple habits that do not require heavy investments (eg, walking 30 minutes daily).
    Melissa Walls*, Cynthia Pearson, Margarette Kading and Ciwang Teyra
    Abstract:
    Our objective was to determine self-reported psychological wellbeing of American Indians (AIs). Data are from two surveys, a) 218 adults from the 2011 - 2012 Mino Giizhigad study including Ojibwa adults in Minnesota and Wisconsin, and b) 146 AI women aged 15 - 36 years from the 2011 Sacred Journey study residing in the Pacific Northwest. Reports of AI mental wellness/positive mental health were on par with or higher than found in previous studies with non-AI samples despite simultaneously disparate rates of AI anxiety, depressive symptoms, and differential exposure to socio-historical stressors. Results are a paradoxical mismatch between mental wellness and mental stressors consistent across two separate, diverse samples of AI adults.
    Review Article
    Gianni Testino*, Silvia Leone, Valentino Patussi, Patrizia Balbinot, Tiziana Fanucchi, Alessandro Sumberaz, Emanuele Scafato and Paolo Borro
    Abstract:
    The correlation between alcohol and cancer is well-known. Recently, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (World Health Organization) included the consumption of alcoholic beverages, as well as the ethanol and acetaldehyde present in alcoholic beverages, in Group 1. A causal relationship has been established between alcohol and the occurrence of several types of cancer, particularly those with onset in the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, esophagus, colon-rectum, liver, and breast. To date, a safe amount has not been established. Instead, a dose-dependent correlation has been demonstrated between cancer risk and alcohol intake in both males and females who consume alcohol on a regular basis. In subjects who consumed or consume alcohol in a risky / harmful way, or in patients with a history of alcohol dependence or alcohol problems, screening and oncological prevention programs should be customized with regard to the general population.
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