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  • ISSN: 2378-9328
    Volume 3, Issue 2
    Research Article
    Sharmina Ahmed* and Jayanthi Thennakoon
    Abstract:
    Objective: To examine the association between mid-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and socio-economic status (SES) of pregnant women in Australia.
    Design: A large scale randomized control trial (RCT). Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and multivariate Probit regression models (Probit and Ordered Probit) controlling for maternal age, location of the hospital, and the treatment effect was performed for the analysis.
    Setting: Pregnant women who were registered in 5 perinatal centres in Australia between 2005 and 2008 were recruited.
    Subjects: 2399 pregnant women with singleton pregnancy at < 20 week gestation.
    Results: There was a negative association between mothers' involvement in a professional employment and maternal mid-pregnancy obesity and overweight. Fathers' employment as a professional was also significantly and negatively related to maternal BMI. Mother's education was positively associated with mid-pregnancy BMI. Maternal smoking and drinking behaviour during pregnancy were significantly linked to obesity and underweight, respectively. A significant positive association was found for the Asian and the Aboriginal cohorts.
    Conclusions: Lower socio-economic status and poor health behaviours during pregnancy are associated with maternal obesity and overweight. Policies and interventions aiming at improving awareness and uplifting socio-economic status of pregnant women have the potential to lower the likelihood of being obese and overweight during pregnancy.
    Wonsuk Yoo*, SubhenduDe, Thad Wilkins, Selina A. Smith and Daniel Blumenthal
    Abstract:
    Colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence rates and mortality have been decreasing in the United States. Currently, states in the South have the smallest reduction in CRC mortality. The trends of CRC incidence rates in Georgia in comparison to the United States have not been investigated. We analyzed age-adjusted incidence rates of CRC in Georgia and the United States from 2000 to 2012 using data from SEER 18 registries. Age-adjusted incidence rates (95% CI) were calculated as cases per 100,000 to the 2000 US Standard population. CRC incidence rates were calculated for groupings based on age at time of diagnosis, race, sex, and geographic location within Georgia. Incidence rates were higher in males compared to females in Georgia. In Georgians age 50-64, incidence rates were higher compared to the US, while those ages 65+ displayed lower incidence rates. Black Georgians age 50-64 generally exhibited higher incidence rates of CRC and lower rates of decrease in incidence compared to other races in Georgia. Asian/Pacific Islander females age 50-64 in Georgia exhibited an increasing trend in incidence rate. Whites and blacks Georgians age 50-64 displayed higher incidence rates compared to the US, while Asian/Pacific Islanders displayed lower incidence rates. Greater incidence rates of CRC in rural and Greater Georgia were seen across all races when compared to overall rates in Georgia. Efforts should be made to address disparities in Georgia based on race and geographic location. Increased screening by colonoscopy or fecal occult blood testing, reduction of risk factors and promotion of healthy lifestyles can reduce CRC incidence rates.
    Case Report
    Viet Vu, Lindsay Alford, Heather Nelson, Marie Carlson, Kenneth Lim, Jenny Puterman, BonnieVenables, Beata Dabrowska, Sarah Beck, Shea Hocaloski, Robin Leung and Melanie Basso*
    Abstract:
    AA is a 29-year-old female withT7 AIS-A complete paraplegia. Her initial injury resulted from a motor vehicle collision in 2011. Tragically, in addition to the loss of her mobility, her two-month-old son died in the accident. Following spinal cord injury (SCI) Rehabilitation, AA presented for care as she was unexpectedly pregnant at 12 weeks gestation. An interdisciplinary team of healthcare providers collaborated to assist AA in her pregnancy, including a perinatologist, physiatrist, OB clinical nurse specialist, SCI sexual health nurse, rehabilitation nurse, community health nurse, outpatient and community occupational therapists, and a social worker. The team met three times to assess equipment needs, plan for a safe delivery, organize postnatal home personal care, and provide newborn baby support services. Prior to pregnancy, AA had developed chronic back pain secondary to deterioration of rods in her back; the plan was for a revision procedure. As a result of her unknown scar location from her previous cesarean section (CS) and presence of increasing back pain, a repeat elective CS under general anesthetic was planned, preceded by an elective ante partum admission a week prior to surgery. Ten days prior to her scheduled CS date, AA was admitted to hospital with pregnancy complications and delivered via urgent CS under general anesthesia. There is limited information that is published on the care of women with SCI following C-section delivery. The extensive planning process resulted in this patient with many complicated risk factors to be discharged from hospital in six days, with postpartum resources and follow-up in her home community in place. This report is meant to help guide clinicians with management of women with similar challenges by considering clinical needs met by Rehabilitation, Sexual Health, and Obstetrics teams.
    Short Communication
    Mona Mittal*, Allison Schroeder, Kelly Thevenet-Morrison and Michael Carey
    Abstract:
    HIV and intimate partner violence (IPV) have been identified as serious public health issues with substantial negative impacts on women. The present study is an event-level analysis examining correlates of condom use at last sexual experience among a sample of 155 community-based women with recent histories of IPV. Individual-, partner-, and relationship-level factors were examined for their association with condom use at the last sexual experience, including condom use self-efficacy, partner dependence, depression, self-esteem, partner and own drug and alcohol use before sex, and demographic characteristics. There were significant bivariate associations between condom use and woman's age, self-efficacy, partner's use of drugs before sex, and level of partner dependence. These variables were successively added to hierarchical multivariate logistic regression models. Older age predicted greater odds of no condom use (OR= 1.04; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.08) and condom use self-efficacy was marginally significant, with greater self-efficacy predicting higher odds of condom use at last sexual experience (OR= .88; 95% CI: .72, 1.07). Partner drug use and partner dependence did not predict odds of condom use. Implications for research and HIV prevention are discussed.
    Mini Review
    Leo Buckley*, Dayanjan Wijesinghe, Dave Dixon, Cory Trankle, Salvatore Carbone, Justin Canada and Benjamin Van Tassell
    Abstract:
    Women's health has received an increasing level of attention. This complex field covers not only the usual causes of morbidity and mortality, such as heart and respiratory diseases, but also health issues unique to women, such as maternal and child health. Despite the breadth of this topic, there are few gender-specific interventions available. Improvements in the health of women are manifest in the declining overall mortality rates, but work remains to attain further improvements.
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