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  • ISSN: 2378-9328
    Volume 3, Issue 3
    Mini Review
    Gemma Enright and Julie Redfern*
    Abstract:
    Childhood obesity is a growing global priority and strategies for health-related behavior change in children have received an increasing level of attention. There has been a recent focus of research on incentives based on behavioral economics literature but work remains to build the evidence base, and inform future translation of behavior change strategies into policy and implementation in community initiatives addressing childhood obesity. The review aims to summarize the literature on effectiveness of incentives for health-related behavior change in children, and discuss gaps in the evidence base and considerations for the design of future strategies for managing childhood obesity. The review found limited but encouraging evidence for a role of incentives in improving health-related behaviors in children, and the behavioral science literature identifies ways in which incentive schemes may be enhanced. Future research that draws on behavioral science will assist in the design and implementation of behavior change strategies for overweight and obese children. Combined with detailed process evaluation, to understand context, this research will support constructive change in tackling the growing global problem of childhood obesity.
    Research Article
    Janet Abosede Ogundairo* and Ayodele Samuel Jegede
    Abstract:
    Objective: To explore the socio-cultural challenges in accessing antenatal care by pregnant Fulani women in Ibarapa Central Local Government, Oyo State, Nigeria
    Methods: Qualitative research instruments were used to gather relevant data.All the participants were selected through purposive sampling. Twenty (20) in-depth interviews, two (2) focus group discussions and six (6) key informant interviews were conducted health officials, Fulani women and community leaders.
    Results: Utilization of antenatal care is subject to socio-cultural factors which include cost of health services, attitudes of health workers, communication barrier, culture of pain suppression, patriarchy and culture of shyness.
    Conclusions: Policies and interventions aiming at addressing the cost of health services must be formulated and well-implemented. Health workers should be culturally competent when carrying out their duties. The male's role in reproductive health and other health issues should not be sidelined. Health campaigns, education and counseling need to be intensified to address the challenge of the culture of pain suppression and culture of shyness in the utilization of antenatal care services.
    Marie-Claire Cammaerts* and Roger Cammaerts
    Abstract:
    Monosodium glutamate, a food additive largely consumed since 1909, has been suspected these last twenty years to impact health. Working on ants as biological models, we examined its physiological and ethological effects, without any conflict of interest. We found that glutamate does not impact ants' consumption of sugar, audacity and brood caring behavior, that it slightly affects their locomotion and aggressiveness towards nestmates, that it increases their meat food consumption and largely decreases their precision of reaction, response to pheromones, cognition as well as their learning and memorization abilities. Having the choice between intact meat and meat imbibed with glutamate, the ants prefer the latter. This is not the case when they have the choice between natural sugar water and sugar water containing glutamate. It was thus found that, enhancing the taste of not sugared food, glutamate may lead to over consume such food, and that this substance impacts behavior requiring cognition and memory, thus the brain and nervous system functioning. Indeed, hydrolyzing into glutamic acid, it may act as a neurotransmitter and may be excitotoxic. Glutamate consumption should thus be carefully limited, essentially when it is used together with aspartame, a sweetener giving rise to aspartic acid, a substance which may also act as a neurotransmitter.
    Carolina Remorini*
    Abstract:
    Although some cultural analyses still use simplistic dualisms such as collectivism vs individualism or interdependence vs autonomy, a balance between individual and collective goals and values is noticeable in many Indigenous communities. Mbya Guarani perspectives on children's growth and development, emphasizes the balance between interdependence and autonomy as complementary values. This article examines the ideas of reciprocity, respect, autonomy, and interdependence of lives and the impact of these on children's development and health. Using an ecological perspective that recognizes humans' relationship with other living beings that inhabit the forest, this article is based on ethnographic research conducted in two Mbya Guarani communities (Argentina). Respect and reciprocity are key for children to develop as part of the community and the forest and they are related to children´s wellbeing and health. I describe Mbya perspectives on children's growth and development, providing examples of environmentally relevant skills to grow up in the forest. These skills are associated with particular ways of inhabiting the forest, including learning how to walk in it and developing entendimiento (understanding). These make possible children's integration in community life through their participation and collaboration in daily activities.
    Review Article
    Olufunke Adegoke* and Ayodele Jegede
    Abstract:
    TBAs are considered to be an important part of the informal community health care system. Moreover, they have been in existence before the advent of modern medical practices, making them deep rooted among community members. They are an asset in communities in terms of their accessibilities and low cost alternative. Their existence have aided in the decline of maternal mortality because large number of the populace see the TBAs as their only alternative in birth delivery. Efforts are been made by the Government to enhance their skills professionally on maternal and child health through training. Though, TBAs are seen not to meet up with measurable standards due to their level of professionalism, there still exist increase in their patronage by community members. A crucial oversight informing their high patronage is the spirituality and religious beliefs of the pregnant women and their significant others in lieu of a successful pregnancy outcome.
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