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  • ISSN: 2378-9328
    Volume 3, Issue 4
    Research Article
    Claudia Benavides Vizcarra and Jalil Safaei*
    Objective: To analyze the various factors underlying stunting status in Peruvian children aged between two and five years.
    Design: Using pooled cross-sectional data for children aged 24 - 59 months from the Peruvian Demographic and Health Survey for the period 2009-2012, a multivariate logistic regression model is used to estimate the effect of individual, household and community factors on stunting status for children in this age group. Findings: The results indicate considerable effects at each of the individual, household and community levels. Significant determinants at the individual level are gender and low birth weight. At the household level, wealth and mother's education are significantly associated with child stunting. Access to delivery services and living in mountains (the Andes area) are significant factors at the community or environmental level.
    Conclusion: The findings of this study are consistent with those in the literature, and provide support for the multifaceted approach to reducing stunting. Policies to provide more equitable maternal care and nutrition, educating mothers and improving the economic wellbeing of the poor and less wealthy families can reduce stunting in Peruvian children. Also, the Articulated Nutrition Program implemented by the Peruvian government since 2008 appears to have had favorable impact on older children who have had a longer time to potentially benefit from it.
    Pei Wang, Weijun Yu, Yuesheng Qiu, Yungang Liu, Minxian Rong, and Hong Deng*
    Volatile N-nitrosamines (VNAs) are class 2 carcinogens (by International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), and they have been detected in various food samples, including meat products. Chinese style sausages are produced with some unique procedures, however, the conditions of contamination of Chinese sausages with VNAs are poorly known. In the present study, nine VNAs were analyzed in 94 sampled Chinese sausages from six provinces of China, using QuEChERS-based gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The most frequently detected VNAs included N-nitrosodimethylamine, N-nitrosodibutylamine, N-nitrosopyrrolidine (NPYR), N-nitrosomorpholine (NMOR), and N-nitrosodiphenylamine. The sum of concentrations of the nine VNAs detected in each sample ranged from 0.5 to 100.7 (median of 7.5) µg/kg. The levels of either total VNAs or particular components (including N-nitrosomethylethylamine, NPYR, and NMOR) in home-made sausages were statistically higher than those in commercial sausages, and this may be attributive to the varied ingredients and modes of package applied at home and commercial sausage production.
    Marcia Raquel da Silva Folhadela, Marcia Tatianna Fernandes Pereira, Helcio Cardoso Gomes, Edla Polsineli Bedin Mascarin do Vale, Andre Luis Volpatto, and Patricia da Silva Fucuta*
    Objective: To analyze alcoholic hepatitis (AH) death predictors.
    Methods: Prospective study on hospitalized patients with AH. Student's t test, Mann-Whitney, the Chi-squared and Fisher's exact test were used for comparative analysis. The accuracies in predicting death of Maddrey discriminant function (MDF) and MELD score were determined by the measurement of areas under the ROC curve (AUROC). The best cutoffs to predict death were identified by the ROC curve and sensitivity (SE), specificity (S), positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated. P-value<0.05 was considered significant.
    Results: Of the 554 hospitalizations, 76 were due to AH (67 patients). Most patients were male (94%), cirrhotic (85%), Child-Pugh C (66%) and mean age was 50 years. High creatinine levels at hospital admission were observed in 25% of the patients; 15% evolved to hepatorenal syndrome. Infection was present in 47%. In-hospital death rate was 24%. Comparison of the variables between death and hospital discharge, respectively: Na 131x136mEq (p=0.006); ALT 84x36IU/l (p=0.001); C-reactive protein 6.0x3.1mg/dl (p=0.03); creatinine 1,5x0.8mg/dl (p=0.006); MDF 62x24 (p=0.001); MELD 28x18 (p<0.0001). AUROC MDF: 0.795 (95% CI 0.65; 0.93); AUROC MELD: 0.867 (95% CI 0.75; 0.97); SE and NPV in predicting death for MDF cutoffs of 32 and 27 were 0.8 and 0.91 versus 0.87 and 0.93; for MELD 19 was 0.87 and 0.92, respectively.
    Conclusions: In-hospital mortality was high. The main complications were infection and renal failure. The overall accuracy of prognostic models MELD and MDF was moderate and they performed better in correctly exclude probability of in-hospital mortality; as a goal of early detection of patients at highest risk of death the MDF cutoff of 27 could maximize the sensitivity to a limited extent, but further studies are necessary with a larger sample size to analyze the potential benefits and risks of pharmacotherapy indication in this context.
    Short Communication
    Trina M. Aguirre*, Wendy L. Wells, and Ann E. Koehler
    We used the Public Health Nursing Model to explore the prevalence of and relationships among cardiovascular risk factors in women attending a community health fair. Most were obese/overweight, hypertensive/prehypertensive, and many had unhealthy lipid levels. None had uncontrolled diabetes. Most were underhydrated and hydration status was negatively associated with obesity measures. Research is needed to explore how hydration might influence obesity. Too few men participated to include them in these analyses. Therefore, approaches are needed to encourage men to participate in future health fairs. Such events provide a low cost means of assessing people's health status and providing health education.
    Emmanuel Arhin* and MS Zango
    The distributions and concentrations of trace elements in the environment exposed to biological materials including humans can affect life depending on the exposure and degree of concentrations. Whilst the essential trace elements impacts on human development the potential toxic elements will have adverse health consequences on humans and in animals. As observed from the study both lives threatening and life supporting trace elements all coexist in the environment. Clinical reviews on trace elements suggest that human bodies require some amounts of them at all times and their deficiencies adversely impact on human health. Mineral supplementation had always been the recommendation for people with deficiency of some trace elements as a prescription drug. In this study X-ray fluorescence analytical technique was used to measure the trace elements in the sediment samples whereas ICP-MS was used for the soil samples. The trace elements in sediments and in soils at the study areas showed Zn, V, Mo, and Ni depletions in both areas. Enrichments of Cu, Se Co and Cr were identified in the natural environments at both areas. The depleted elements are all essential elements which some are useful in the prevention of chronic diseases. Arsenic (As) was observed to be enriched in soils in Bole area and in stream sediments at Datoko-Shega; their involuntary ingestion can cause serious adverse health impact in humans. The study anticipate some of the essential trace element deficiency and the enrichment of some of the potential toxic elements to impact on Public Health and the authors fear for possible human health problem due to the bioavailability and bioaccumulation of the elevated high concentrations of PTE's and deficiencies of some essential elements in stream sediments and soil samples.
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