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  • ISSN: 2378-9328
    Volume 4, Issue 1
    Short Communication
    Katharina Kovacs Burns*, Melita Avdagovska, Lana Bistritz, Karin Olson, and Leah Gramlich
    With more emphasis on healthy living, risk prevention and health promotion, people will seek advice from their healthcare providers (HCPs) who need to have the knowledge, skills and confidence to discuss these areas and provide advice. However, studies indicate that HCPs are not adequately prepared to provide advice on nutrition, physical activity, wellness (NPAW) and risk prevention. This communication report walks through a 10-year journey of the development of a WellnessRx education initiative focusing on building the knowledge, skills and attitudes of HCPs in NPAW and risk prevention. WellnessRx consists of five learning modules, piloted and evaluated with over 1,500 health science students and nurses. The evaluation findings from all pilots and other sources have guided the development of the WellnessRx modules over the 10 years. Participants indicated the importance of NPAW for personal and professional uses, and demonstrated improved KSAs as a result of completing the modules. In addition to successes, challenges were also noted to be addressed including the online format and technology, time to complete the modules including exercises and reading resources. Based on this decade of experiences, a call-to-action is needed concerning NPAW being an essential part of education and training competencies for HCP students and practitioners. NPAW education does not stop when HCP students graduate and enter the practice setting. Hence, the need for innovative education interventions like what WellnessRx offers. The journey for WellnessRx therefore continues with opportunities, partnerships and business ventures involving the universities and health systems.
    Trina Aguirre*, Ann Koehler, Susan Wilhelm, Eli Rodriguez, and Ashley Kamphaus
    We conducted this pilot study (n=50 mother/child dyads) to evaluate the feasibility of collecting biometric measures on 2-5 year old Mexican-American children. Measures included body composition using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), body mass index (BMI), anthropometrics (triceps skin fold, waist circumference), lipid profiles, glucose levels, and blood pressure. We successfully performed the biometric measures in both a large scale event (40 mother-child dyads, single time point, at a neighborhood community center) and individualized appointments (10 mother-child dyads, 4 time points, at university facilities). In the large-scale setting, all measures were completed on 90% of the children. In the individualized setting (multiple time points), children became more comfortable with the research setting and measurement procedures over time, which helped when performing the measurement procedures. Measurement procedures were generally well received except those involving finger sticks (e.g. lipid profiles, glucose levels). Therefore, researchers should evaluate the need for such data and minimize the number of finger sticks required. Accommodating other family members was also important in this population. These findings will better enable us to objectively measure the impact of our obesity intervention during the fully powered study.
    Research Article
    Dawood HS*, Arthur RW, Meg MC, Deanna Ryder, Shawna MG, Arturo Rebollon Guardado, Nashrin KJ, David NO, and Jenelle RW
    Purpose: To determine differences in comorbidity-adjusted stroke hospitalization charges by patient race/ethnicity, age, and income prior to the implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and to outline health policy provisions which may reduce future hospitalization charges among black stroke patients.
    Materials and methods: The data source was the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) 2008 Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS), a 20% stratified sample of all discharges from 705 hospitals from the 34 States which reported to HCUP data including race. Stroke inpatients aged 45 to 84 with a principal diagnosis for cerebral infarction (ICD-9 codes 362.3, 433.01, 434.01) and acute, but ill-defined, cerebrovascular disease (ICD-9 code 436), excluding secondary diagnoses of traumatic brain injury (codes 800-804, 850-854), were included in the study. Patients were stratified into two age groups: 45-64 and 65-84. Total charges were adjusted using HCUP cost-to-charge ratios. Data for 41,291 patients were analyzed.
    Results: Black patients were more likely to have a secondary diagnosis of diabetes, hypertension, and longer hospital stay. Adjusted charges and the number of secondary diagnoses were significantly higher for older black patients. Younger black patients with stroke-only diagnosis had significantly higher overall adjusted charges and higher charges at lower income levels than younger white patients of similar age. Older black patients with hypertension and diabetes had significantly higher adjusted charges in all diagnosis categories and lower income levels.
    Conclusions: Prevention programs and better management of diabetes and hypertension may reduce hospitalization charges among older African Americans and white/black disparities in charges.
    Kafayat Aminu* and Ayodele Samuel Jegede
    The symptoms of Ebola virus disease EVD are similar to those of common ailments in the Nigeria (such as malaria, cholera and diarrhoea) for which people consult traditional healers. The study investigated level of knowledge about EVD among traditional healers in Ibadan. The research design was descriptive cross-sectional and qualitative data collection approach was adopted to gather information from respondents. The level of awareness about EVD outbreak in Nigeria was high but the healers’ understanding of various aspects of EVD was inadequate. The limited knowledge about EVD revealed need for continuous education of the healers even after outbreak given their popularity in the State and country at large.
    Review Article
    Rauniyar M, Shrestha J, Raj L. Bhatta, Shrestha A*, and Acharya K
    Background: Infectious diseases are a common cause of hospital admission in developing countries.Communicable diseases are the main reasons for admission to the medical ward of developing countries. However, there is a rise in the prevalence of the non- communicable diseases in the developing countries.
    Primary objective: To see the trend of disease pattern admitted in the Internal Medicine ward of BPKIHS in the last 5yrs. To know the common causes of hospital admissions in Internal Medicine ward.
    Secondary objective: To analyse the rise and fall of diseases in certain year. To classify the diseases as communicable and non-communicable disease and to know about the changing pattern of disease.
    Methods: A retrospective observational study was performed to estimate the disease burden in the Internal medicine ward of BPKIHS in last 5 years. Data were obtained from the account section of BPKIHS and included patients admitted to the medicine ward from January 2008 to December 2012. Data entry was done in Microsoft excel, and data were analyzed using SPSS. Results were presented in both descriptive and tabular form.
    Results: The main system involved was respiratory (in 2008-21.6%, in 2009-21.4%, in 2010-19.3%, in 2011 -18.2%). COPD and Diabetes were among the top 10 diseases admitted in medicine ward. (COPD=in 2008-7.3%, in 2009-6%, in 2010-6%, in 2011-5.8%, in 2012-4.6%) (Diabetes in 2008-6.1%, in 2009-5.9%, in 2010-5.3%, in 2011-4.7%, in 2012-3%) The cases of poisoning have been increasing every year, with the maximum cases of it in the year 2012 i.e. 21% and initially in 2008 it was 10%. The most common diseases, according to our study were COPD, Diabetes, Nephritic syndrome, Poisoning, Pneumonia, angina, Tuberculosis.
    Conclusion: The Main cause of morbidity was organophosphorus poisoning and the main system responsible was Respiratory followed by CVS, Poisoning. The cases for respiratory system have been declining since 2008. Poisoning cases have increased since 2008. Endocrine disorders have been to be decreasing since 2008.
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