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  • ISSN: 2378-9328
    Volume 4, Issue 2
    Research Article
    Sule Yilmaz*, Memduha Tas, and Zulfiye Gul Ercan
    This study investigated whether the needs of preschoolers with speech and language problems are being met in Turkey. The study was conducted in the Speech and Language Unit of Trakya University’s Early Childhood Education and Research Center based on data gathered retrospectively from case files. Factors thought to be important for the future course of the children’s condition (i.e., referral age for speech-language evaluation, attendance in the planned program, presence of additional risk factors, receptive language problems, and whether the families were given any information about the problem by their children’s doctors and teachers) were explored. It was found that needs related to speech-language intervention were not met in a great proportion of the children because about 80% of the families did not bring their children to therapy or follow-up. Attendance was significantly higher among children attending school compared with those not enrolled in school. Only 18% of the families had been previously informed of their children’s problems, and none of the families had been given any advice on how to behave toward their children’s problems or what to do to develop their speech-language skills. Barriers to children’s receipt of required interventions should be identified, and any additional supports needed to increase attendance should be provided.
    Christie Celia DC*, Palmer Paulette M, Tomlinson Jennifer, Green-Douglas Tanya, Hamilton Michelle, Pierre Russell B, Hylton-Kong Tina, Morgan Orville, Barrow Geoffrey, Mitchell Paul, Skyers Nicola, Stevens Erva-Jean, Condell-Gibson Novia, and Harvey Kevin M
    Background and Purpose: Jamaica is an upper middle-income developing Caribbean island-nation, population 2.8 million, with a generalized and mixed HIV epidemic. We report progress towards achieving international validation standards for the elimination of vertical transmission of HIV and syphilis in Jamaica during 2013 through 2015.
    Methods: The vertical elimination cascade which was initially established in 2002 was continued by ensuring pregnant women attended for antenatal care, had “opt-out” counseling and testing for HIV/syphilis, treatment of syphilis in community clinics, referring HIV+ women to “High Risk” antenatal hospital-based clinics and to research nurses who coordinated their care and documented the outcomes, commencing antiretroviral therapy (ART), delivering women with HIV and/or syphilis in hospitals, offering ART-prophylaxis and full replacement feeds to HIV-exposed infants, testing them with DNA/RNA PCR by four to six months using dry blood spots and evaluating and treating babies for congenital syphilis.
    Results: During 2013, 2014 and 2015, these initiatives resulted in vertical HIV transmission rate of 3%, 1% and 1% respectively (the elimination target is < 2%). Incidence of HIV in infants is 0.3, 0.1 and 0.1 per 1,000 live births respectively, (meeting the elimination target of < 0.3per 1,000). The incidence of congenital syphilis was 0.7, 0.7 and 0.8 per 1,000 live births, respectively, (the elimination target is < 0.5/1,000). Success factors included strong healthcare systems linked to outcomes-based, implementation and basic science research, prevention of mother to child transmission program was integrated into routine Maternal and Child Health; development of the National Family Planning Board - Sexual Health Agency; strong political will, commitment and funding; inter-sectoral academic-public-private collaboration and oversight; “point of care” rapid testing and treatment for HIV and syphilis; national education campaigns; health systems strengthening; monitoring and evaluation programs; barrier contraceptives during pregnancy and breastfeeding; implementing “Option B+” with ART’s continued for life in the mother; civil society engagement and island-wide training and practice in the validation standards.
    Conclusions: While Jamaica has achieved the vertical transmission elimination targets for HIV, more effective strategies are needed to document the similar international standards for syphilis.
    Short Communication
    Jidong Huang, Pamela Redmon, Zongshuan Duan*, Yixin Duan, Yuan Jiang, and Michael Eriksen
    Background: While exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) is alarmingly high in China, little is known about variance of SHS exposure across Chinese cities. This study is designed to systematically assess SHS exposure and perceived health risks of tobacco use in five Chinese cities.
    Methods: The TQS was a subset of key questions from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS). Target population was non­institutionalized adult residents age 15 and above in urban areas. Multi­stage cluster sampling was applied to select 2,500 individuals from each city.
    Results: Across all five cities, bars, restaurants, workplaces, and homes had the highest rates of SHS exposure. While SHS exposure in public transportation was low, it was high in schools, universities, government buildings and healthcare facilities. Importantly, significant variations exist in SHS exposure across cities. Regarding perceived health risks of SHS exposure, the vast majority of survey respondents believed SHS exposure can cause lung cancer in adults and lung diseases in children. In contrast, the percent of those who believed SHS exposure can cause heart disease in adults was low. In all five cities, smokers were less likely to believe the harms of SHS than nonsmokers.
    Conclusion: Significant variations exist in SHS exposure and perceived health risks of SHS in Chinese cities, which may be attributed to tobacco control efforts and implementation of city-wide smoke-free policies. Targeted media and education campaigns that aim to increase the level of knowledge of the negative health consequences of SHS exposure are urgently needed in Chinese cities.
    Samah Kotb Nasr Eldeen*, Raghdaa Al-Buni, Afnan Al Yami, and Huda Alali
    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and body fat percentage (% BF) among 100 healthy adults (ages, 19-30 y) from a group of Saudi Arabian adults, during 2016. In this study examined adults were divided into four groups after calculating BMI, and after the correlation between BMI and %BF. The obtained results show that there are significantly more (p < 0.05) males (ages, 19-30) with a healthy weight than females. The correlation between BMI and %BF was very strong, positive, among examined females (r = 0.9) and males (r = 1). In a group with normal % BF and increased BMI there were significantly more (p < 0.01) males than females, and the opposite situation were in a group with normal BMI and % BF, where it was significantly more (p < 0.05) females than males. Obtained results show that the majority of adults in the Saudi Arabia have normal body weight, with a tendency of increase, especially among females who are more prone to unbalanced nutrition.
    Mini Review
    Erica L. Mc Grath and Ping Wu*
    Zika virus has emerged as a public health crisis and is associated with a number of neurological deficits; however, only subsets of individuals who contract a Zika virus infection develop severe symptoms. The mechanism underlying Zika virus-induced neuropathogenesis is still poorly understood. Recent studies have implicated the host immune response as a key regulator in Zika virus neuropathology. Specifically, immune responses generated from previous flavi virus infection may contribute to antibody-dependent enhancement of Zika virus infection. Innate immunity may also play an important role for the broad array of individual symptomatic differences. Therefore, host immunity may serve as a therapeutic target to reduce Zika-associated neuropathogenesis.
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