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  • ISSN: 2378-9328
    Volume 5, Issue 2
    Review Article
    German Malaga*, MariaSofia Cuba-Fuentes, Leonardo Rojas-Mezarina, Zoila Romero-Albino, Alexandra Hamb, and Valerie A. Paz Soldan
    Health literacy is associated with improved health outcomes. Primary care providers usually provide the majority of care to patients and are also usually the first point of contact for patients within a health system. Wediscuss four strategies to improve health literacy in the primary care setting: 1) Improve clinician communication skills, 2) Usee-Health tools, 3) Promote patient self-management, and 4) Develop supportive systems and caring environments. These strategies are then discussed within the context of low-middle income country realities, such as the case of Peru. There are unique challenges to improving health literacy in low and middle-income countries, but working towards this objective also provides opportunities to strengthen systems and empower patients, and conduct research to determine the impact of different approaches.
    Lily Gutnik*, Beatrice Matanje Mwagomba, Ella Bwanasi, Eleanor Nkosi, Tara Thindwa, Malumbo Chirwa, Victoria Mopiwa, Satish Gopal, and Blandina Khondowe
    In the United States, 5-year survival for women with newly diagnosed breast cancer is 90%, compared with 75% in 1975 [1]. In 1987, only 29% of women over age 40 underwent recommend screening mammography, compared to 64% in 2015 [2].
    Research Article
    Shaarif Bashir, Taimoor Jaffar Ali, Khurram Khaliq, Hamna Nouman, Malik Qistas Ahmad*, Muhammad Usman, Muhammad Junaid Tariq, Muhammad Asad Fraz, Awais Ijaz, Chaudhry Saad Sohail, Arshia Akbar, Muhammad Yasir, Anum Jamal, Muhammad Jahanzeb Khalil, and Muhammad Arsalan Arshad
    Mosquitoes cause more human suffering than any other organism -- over one million people worldwide die from mosquito-borne diseases every year. Not only can mosquitoes carry diseases that afflict humans, they can also transmit several diseases and parasites that dogs and horses are very susceptible to. Mosquitoes can spread viruses like Malaria, Zika, Chikungunya, and Dengue.
    This study provides a better understanding of the amounts spent by households in different areas of Lahore, Pakistan on different measures; how many people are aware of its usage and which methods they find the most useful.
    A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in Lahore, Pakistan. By using simple random procedure, 100 households were interviewed about their expenditure on malaria mosquito nets in the past year. For collecting data, a structured questionnaire was implemented. Expenditure was compared across bed nets, aerosols, coils, manual swatting, indoor spraying, using smoke, and cleaning outside environment.
    Based on data collected from males and females in a ratio 60:40, with most falling in the age group of 18-25yrs, we concluded that 95% of population was aware of mosquito spread diseases and 90% had adopted measures for its prevention. 49% of our study population had an income in range of 30,000-50,000 ($284-474 USD) and belonged to areas which were free from any significant sanitary problems. 57% spent yearly expenditure of less than Rs.5000 ($47 USD) on protective measures while only 8% spent more than 10,000 PKR ($94 USD) yearly. 65% found mosquito repellent to be most effective while mosquito nets being the least. A high proportion of 65% preferred a protective method which is of high quality.
    This survey reveals that on an average, an individual person spends about 1.1% of his yearly family income for mosquito prevention, which is about less than equal to 7000 PKR ($66 USD).
    Hamza Inam Rashid, Saif-ur-Rehman, Iman Waheed, Ifrah Jabbar, Hamza Tahir, Hassan Imtiaz, Chaudhry Saad Sohail*, Arshia Akbar, Khawaja Hassan Akhtar, Anum Jamal, Muhammad Nawal, Mydah Sajid Hashmi, Waqas Khan, and Nida Jamil
    Background: Being a developing country and having a literacy rate of mere 49%, people of Pakistani in general have misperceptions about even the most prevalent of the diseases. This includes cataract and glaucoma. They still believe that glaucoma like cataract can be surgically treated and thus refrain from seeking early medical advice and end up losing their eyesight.
    Objective: The objective of study is to find out the awareness and knowledge of cataract and glaucoma in patients aged 45 and above coming to outpatient department of Jinnah Hospital Lahore
    Study design: Cross-sectional study
    Study setting and duration: Jinnah Hospital Lahore affiliated with Allama Iqbal Medical College located at Moulana Shabbir Ahmed, Usmani Road, Lahore 54550, Pakistan.
    1 month Duration from May-June 2017.
    Inclusion criteria: Patients presenting to OPD of Jinnah Hospital Lahore, Pakistan
    Patients above 45 years of age
    Both genders, male and female
    Data collection and analysis: 250 subjects fulfilling the inclusion criteria were included in our study. After a verbal informed consent, a structured questionnaire was handed over or all the questions were directly asked from the patient by the group members in cases of illiterate patients. All the information was collected in this structured questionnaire.
    Data was analyzed by SPSS version 17.0 or 21.0. For quantitative variables, mean and standard deviation were computed and for qualitative variables, frequency and percentages were computed.
    Results: Among our sample population, 75.2 % (188) people had heard about cataract and among those 80.8% correctly knew that in cataract lens become opaque. Awareness of glaucoma was low, with only 43.2% being aware.
    Conclusion: Cataract awareness and knowledge was found fairly well due to its high prevalence and occurrence, in almost every aging person. Glaucoma awareness and knowledge were both poor. Lack of health education is the main factor contributing to these results.
    Patricia Markham Risica*, Adam Gavarkovs, Donna R. Parker, Ernestine Jennings, and Maureen Phipps
    Introduction: Baby's Breath is a multicomponent intervention to decrease environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) among pregnant smokers or ETS exposed non-smokers.
    Methods: Eligible participants, recruited from low-income serving prenatal clinics spoke English, were 18 years or older; were smokers, quitters or smoke-exposed; did not have a multiple gestation pregnancy; had access to a working telephone and video player; and were not more than 16 weeks pregnant. Intervention participants received five tailored videos delivered at 16, 24 and 34 weeks gestation, and at 2 and 14 weeks postpartum; a video for a household or other close smoker; and eight newsletters. Comparison group participants also received eight newsletters containing no tobacco content. Newsletters were mailed to both groups throughout pregnancy, and 16 and 26 weeks postpartum.
    Primary outcome measures included: Maternal and infant salivary cotinine self-reported smoking status, and ETS exposure and avoidance. Process measures of video and newsletter use were collected by telephone survey.
    Results: No differences were found in smoking cessation or differences in maternal salivary cotinine. Among non-smokers, cotinine among control group infants was significantly higher (3.06 ng/ml) compared with intervention group infants (2.26 ng/ml, p=.0337). Dose analysis demonstrated a relationship between use of intervention components and main outcomes. Dose analysis demonstrated a relationship between use of intervention components and main outcomes.
    Discussion: The Baby's Breath intervention assisted in ETS avoidance among non-smokers, but not ETS avoidance or cessation among smokers. Baby's Breath demonstrates that a low-intensity ETS avoidance intervention can be effective among low-income, pregnant non-smokers.
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