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  • ISSN: 2333-7095
    Special Issue on Cancer Radiation Therapy
    Review Article
    Takeo Takahashi1,2, Jun-ichi Saitoh2, Katsuyuki Shirai2, Keiichiro Nishimura1, Tatsuya Ohno2 and Takashi Nakano2
    The head and neck region consists of subsites, including the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, nasal sinuses, salivary glands, and orbits, and contains important organs performing functions that are directly related to the Quality of Life (QOL), such as chewing, swallowing, and phonation. It has been reported that 32% of head and neck cancers occur in the oral cavity, 24% in the larynx, 35% in the pharynx, and 9% in the nasal cavity and sinuses [1]. Histopathologically, more than 95% of head and neck cancers are squamous cell carcinomas.
    Review Article
    Keiichi Jingu1*, Takaya Yamamoto1, Tomohiro Kaneta1, Noriyuki Kadoya1, Ken Takeda2 and Haruo Matsushita1
    Abstract: Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy (SABR) is developing and becoming one of the few curative treatment methods alternative to resection for early-stage lung cancer in inoperable patients. FDG-PET now has many approved indications and is included in guidelines for tumor staging and response assessment. FDG-PET is also used for radiotherapy in lung cancer in many ways (e.g., target delineation, prediction prognosis); however, there are some limitations, especially motion blur and partial volume effect. Thus prognostic ability of SUVmax is controversial in early-stage lung cancer. We reviewed the utility and limitation of FDG-PET in SABR for early-stage lung cancer.
    Noriyuki Kadoya*
    Abstract: Deformable Image Registration (DIR) has become commercially available in the field of radiotherapy. DIR is an exciting and interesting technology for multi-modality image fusion, anatomic image segmentation, Four-dimensional (4D) dose accumulation and lung functional (ventilation) imaging. Furthermore, DIR is playing an important role in modern radiotherapy included Image-Guided Radiotherapy (IGRT) and Adaptive Radiotherapy (ART). DIR is essential to link the anatomy at one time to another while maintaining the desirable one-to-one geographic mapping. The first part focused on the description of image registration process. Next, typical applications of DIR were reviewed on the four practical examples; dose accumulation, auto segmentation, 4D dose calculation and 4D-CT derived ventilation imaging. Finally, the methods of validation for DIR were reviewed and explained how to validate the accuracy of DIR.
    Ken Takeda1*, Rei Umezawa2, Yohjiro Ishikawa2, Noriyuki Kadoya2, Kengo Ito2, Toshiyuki Sugawara2, Masaki Kubozono2, Takaya Yamamoto2, Maiko Kozumi2, Suguru Dobashi1, Koichi Chida1, Haruo Matsushita2 and Keichi Jingu2
    Abstract: Recent technological developments in External Body Radiation Therapy (EBRT), such as intensity-modulated radiation therapy and Image-Guided Radiation Therapy (IGRT), have confirmed the advantages of delivering high doses to achieve optimal tumor-control outcomes and a significant reduction of digestive and urinary toxicities in localized prostate cancer patients. The use of fiducial markers is a reliable and accurate method to localize and register the prostate gland during EBRT. However, a number of publications have pointed out the limitations of using fiducial marker registration in IGRT for the Seminal Vesicles (SVs) when they are included in the target volumes. The SVs may become deformed and move to some extent relative to the prostate gland. In this review, several recent publications dealing with technical advances in IGRT that appear to further improve the quality of position verification methods in EBRT for localized prostate cancer are discussed. The importance of investigating the possible advantage of integrating novel systemic technologies for the improvement of outcomes of locally advanced prostate cancer patients is also examined.
    Mini Review
    Masashi Koto*, Azusa Hasegawa, Ryo Takagi, Hiroaki Ikawa and Tadashi Kamada
    Abstract: Radiotherapy (RT) is a definitive treatment option for cancers of the head and neck. Indeed, the most common pathology of head and neck lesions, Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC), is radiosensitive. Recently, RT with chemotherapy has been shown to improve the local control and survival rates among patients with head and neck SCC. However, tumors arising in the head and neck region are of a variety of histological types, including adenoid cystic carcinoma, mucosal malignant melanoma, and bone and soft tissue sarcoma. Most of these tumors are resistant to RT, and therefore, RT is limited to postoperative or palliative care for these tumors. Carbon ions offer a biological advantage because, as compared with photons, carbon ions have higher linear energy transfer components in the Bragg peak. Carbon ions also provide a higher degree of physical selectivity because they have a finite range in tissue. Therefore, carbon ion RT permits better dose conformity than can be obtained with photon RT. Consequently, carbon ion RT can potentially control radio-resistant tumors while sparing normal tissues. This review summarizes clinical studies of carbon ion radiotherapy for head and neck cancers, especially non-SCCs.
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