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  • ISSN: 2333-7095
    Special Issue on Cancer Screening with Computed Tomography (CT) Scan
    Review Article
    Marios A Gavrielides*, Qin Li, Rongping Zeng, Kyle J Myers, Berkman Sahiner, and Nicholas Petrick
    Abstract: Lung nodule volumetry with computed tomography has the potential for more reliable measurements of tumor size and therefore determination of temporal changes in a shorter interval of time. In a 2009 review, Gavrielides et al summarized the findings of studies that had examined the inter-related factors affecting the accuracy and precision of volumetric measurements of lung nodules with CT. In this review we update this earlier work by summarizing the recent body of literature in this field. In addition, we provide a list of publicly available resources for researchers and summarize current efforts towards building consensus and standardizing the use of volumetric CT.
    Edwin JR van Beek*, Saeed Mirsadraee and John T Murchison
    Abstract: Worldwide, lung cancer is the leading cause of mortality due to malignancy. The vast majority of cases of lung cancer are smoking related and the most effective way of reducing lung cancer incidence and mortality is by smoking cessation. In the western world, smoking cessation policies have met with limited success. The other major means of reducing lung cancer deaths is to diagnose cases at an earlier more treatable stage employing screening programmes using chest radiographs or low dose computed tomography. In the rest of the world, smoking is still on the increase, and the sheer scale of the problem limits the affordability of such screening programmes. This short review article will evaluate the current evidence and potential areas of research which may benefit policy making throughout the world.
    Short Communication
    Hiroshi Fushiki1,2*, Akihiro Noda1,2, Sousuke Miyoshi1,2 and Shintaro Nishimura1,2
    Abstract: Objective: To visualize the vascularity of orthotopically implanted pulmonary tumor in a clinically relevant murine model of human Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC).
    Method: Orthotopic pulmonary tumors in mice were established by intrapulmonary injection of human NSCLC Calu-6 cells. Contrast-enhanced micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) was used to visualize the pulmonary tumor and blood flow in the chest. To create the three-dimensional (3D) image, Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) data from micro-CT acquisitions were transferred to surface-rendering software.
    Result: The pulmonary tumor and vascularity in chest cavity were detected using micro-CT imaging with contrast agent. The 3D image created using surface-rendering software enabled clear visualization of the vascularity surrounding the pulmonary tumor and the blood vessels directly connected to the pulmonary vein.
    Conclusions: The combination of contrast-enhanced micro-CT imaging and 3D imaging visualization using the volume rendering technique (VRT) was useful in evaluating the vascularity of pulmonary tumors in mice.
    Francesco Alessandrino1*, Giovanni Vitale1 and Alfredo La Fianza2
    Abstract: It has been estimated that every year in Europe and in the USA about 26,000 and 13,000 people die of renal cell carcinoma, respectively. For localized disease 5-year relative survival rate is 92.8% whereas for regional and metastatic disease is 64, 2% and 11.9% respectively. Thus, there are conditions to elaborate a screening program for renal cancer, in particular for a subset of population which is at high risk (eg smokers, obese), in which the prevalence of the disease is higher. The most accurate imaging test for the diagnosis of renal masses is CT, in particular for the small renal masses, in which there are more therapeutic options and for whom there a higher survival rate.
    Clinical Image
    Michela Massollo1, Silvia Morbelli2, Giacomo Leoncini3, Marco Mora4, Cecilia Marini5, Giovanni Battista Ratto3, Mauro Truini4 and Gianmario Sambuceti1,2*
    A 60-year-old man came to the emergency department for a trauma. Total body CT-scan showed a large solid mass in middle and lower field of left lung with extensive involvement of pleural space, adherent to pericardium and diaphragm. The lesion had irregular contours and coarse calcifications; it displaced the lower lobar bronchus being without any mediastinal or lymph nodal involvement.
    Editorial
    Alves JL* and Santiago J
    The incidence rate for primary nervous system tumors in adults (aged 20 years or older) is estimated to be 27.4 per 100,000 persons (data from 50 cancer registries, 2006 to 2010, in United States of America) [1]. Approximately one third are malignant, with the remainder being benign or borderline malignant. Despite continuous research, little is known regarding brain cancer risk factors (environmental and genetic).
    Douglas Arenberg*
    Ever since the announcement of the finding of a reduced mortality from lung cancer in those screened low dose CT [1], strong and sometimes diverging opinions have been expressed by a variety of interested stakeholders. Patient advocacy groups hail this is a major step forward and has pushed for widespread adoption of lung cancer screening. Primary care organizations greeted the news with responses that varied from cautious optimism to outright skepticism. Third party payers hinted at some degree of horror at the potential for increased costs. Lung cancer clinicians, who have long wished for major advances in the field, saw this as a significant, incremental step in the fight against lung cancer. Health services researchers, while acknowledging that a segment of the population can benefit from lung cancer screening, have also issued warnings of caution and potential dire consequences if screening is done incorrectly. We could emulate reality television; line people up on opposite sides of the debate, watch them hurl insults, and point fingers, but the truth is that every one of these stakeholders has some valid points to make. It's in this context that I write this editorial, hoping to synthesize some of the diverse opinions, and bring some order to the ongoing discourse about lung cancer screening.
    Addonisio G* and Morana G
    Lung cancer is the second malignant neoplasia, by incidence, (accounting for 14% of the total number of tumors), preceded only by prostate cancer in males (28%) and breast cancer in females (29%). In both males and females, lung cancer is the first death cause for cancer [1].
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