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  • ISSN: 2379-0571
    Current Issue
    Volume 4, Issue 5
    Case Report
    Schwarzman G, Watson JN*, and Hutchinson MR
    Lateral epicondylopathy, or tennis elbow is a common cause of lateral elbow pain resulting from angiofibroblastic changes in the forearm extensor tendons. Classically the condition involves the extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB), but can also be seen in other tendons of the forearm extensor mass. Any repetitive movement, such as a tennis backhand or heavy lifting that stresses the lateral side of the elbow can cause the condition. Lateral elbow pain, pain with resisted wrist and long finger extension are clinical findings consistent with lateral epicondylopathy. Non-operative treatment is effective the majority of the time, and consists of rest, ice and physical therapy. Multiple operative treatments have been described when non-operative treatment fails; including percutaneous, arthroscopic, and open releases or debridement.
    Review Article
    Jeffrey R. Ruland, Michael M. Hadeed III, and David R. Diduch*
    Patellofemoral pain (PFP) is common, especially in women who are physically active. The diagnosis can be challenging, as the etiology of PFP is complex and is unclear. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the current etiological understandings both microscopically and macroscopically and provide an overview for the evaluation and treatment. It is essential to approach each patient presenting with PFP systematically such that the correct causative factors are identified and an appropriate treatment protocol is devised that is tailored to the patient’s individual needs.
    Research Article
    Julio Cesar Gali*, Guilherme Camargo Petta, Gustavo Blanco Azeredo, João Paulo Gazarini, Carlos Amaral Junior, and Phelipe Augusto Cintra da Silva
    Introduction: The medial patellar ligaments are passive stabilizers which act against lateral patellar dislocation during movement. Recently, further attention has been given to the medial patellotibial ligament (MPTL) importance as a restraint to lateral dislocation of the patella, and some reconstruction procedures of this ligament have been describedto treat patellofemoral instability. The aim of this study is to establish the MPTL insertions radiographic landmarks to guide itsanatomical reconstruction and for postoperative radiological control.
    Methods: In 12 knees obtained from amputations, the MPTL patellar and tibial insertion sites were identified, and they had their centers recorded with metallic markers. The knees were x-rayed in anteroposterior (AP) and lateral incidences. In the AP x-rays views two lines were drawn: one over the tibial articular surface and another parallel to the first one, passing through the MPTL tibial insertion center. Then the distances from this center to the articular surface and to the medial tibial cortex were measured. The greatest pole-to-pole patellar length was delineated in the lateral x-ray incidences and the distance from the superior patellar pole to the MPTL patellar insertion center was measured.
    Results: In the AP x-ray view the average distance between the MPTL tibial insertion center to the tibial articular surface was 22.5 ± 6.2 mm and from this insertion center to the medial tibial cortex was 17.4 ± 6.2 mm. The perpendicular line originated on the MPTL tibial insertion center reached the one over the tibial articular surface at a mean 21.2 ± 7.8 % of this line, from medial to lateral. On the lateral view the MPTL patellar insertion center was established at a mean of 46.6 ± 8.1 % on a line drawn from the superior to the inferior patellar pole. On this incidence the distance from the patellar superior pole to the MPTL insertion center was 20.2 ± 4.0 mm.
    Conclusion: It was possible to determine the MPTL insertion sites radiographic location. Such knowledge may be useful for intraoperative reconstruction guidance as well as for postoperative radiological control.
    Stephen J Strotmeyer*
    Objective: Injuries from Muaythai fighting is a common outcome. Prevention strategies to reduce injury incidence and severity have focused on increased safety regulations. However, this is based on anecdotal evidence rather than empirical evidence measuring theseverity and possible predictors. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between injury severity, age, competitive level, previous fight experience, and the fight outcome. Also, a prediction model for injury severity was built using these variables.
    Methods: A total of 150 fighters were randomly sampled at sanctioned fight events and information on severity, demographics, thenumber of previous fights, professional versus amateur status, and the outcome of the bout was collected. Simple linear regression was used to assess each variable’s relationship with severity. Multiple linear regression was then used to determine a final model for the prediction of injury severity.
    Results: Simple linear regression showed that competitive status (professional versus amateur) was statistically significant in predictinginjury severity, while the total number of fights and age were not. However, these models were determined to have poor fit (R2= .28, .19, .39). Multiple linear regression showed that the most appropriate final model consisted of two covariates - competitive level and fight outcome. The final model had a fit of 15%, and MSE of 590.8.
    Conclusions: Two out of 4 independent variables examined appear to be related to the prediction of injury severity (the level of the fighter’s competition and the outcome of the fight).
    Neeraj Kumar* and Nupur Laroiya
    VO2 max is being considered as the most important determinants to measure cardio-respiratory fitness of an individual. The purpose of the present study was to determine any relationship between VO2 max and agility among collegiate athletes. A total of 100 collegiate athletes voluntarily participated in this study. The mean age (Years), height (CM) and weight (KG) of participants were 20.44, 170.37 and 61.75 respectively. The VO2 max was measured by Bruce protocol and the agility was measured by Illinois agility test. Pearson’s correlation was applied to analyze the association, and statistical insignificant result was found. The finding of present study reveals that there is no any relationship of VO2 max and agility in collegiate athletes.
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