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  • ISSN: 2379-0571
    Early Online
    Volume 7, Issue 4
    Research Article
    Raul Zarzuela, Miguel Sierra, Hector Gutierrez-Reguero, Sandra Anton, Ana Hernandez-Gandara, Aranzazu Ayllon, Silvia Sedano*
    Core strengthening represents a regular intervention strategy to prevent pathologies, but sex-differences in muscle activation are still controversial. The main purpose was to determine if these differences existed for electromyoghraphic activity (EMG) of the erector spinae, gluteus medius, external oblique and rectus abdominis during four static and two dynamic exercises. Sixteen U19 elite youth soccer players participated in the study: 8 males (mean age 18.42 ± 0.91 years) and 8 females (mean age 18.72 ± 1.70 years). Firstly, each subject performed four maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVICs), each one focused on one of the muscles previously listed. Then, EMG was registered during four static (front plank, side plank, bilateral bridge and unilateral bridge) and two dynamic (forward lunge and forward step-up) exercises. Females registered relatively higher EMG activity in all muscles evaluated, in all exercises. Unilateral bridge and forward lunge seemed to be the exercises where there were more differences between sexes. Gluteus medius in static exercises and rectus abdominis, both in static and in dynamic tasks, showed more significant differences between males and females. Results suggested that, in general, females would reach a greater benefit from these exercises. The unilateral bridge exercise seems to be essential to improve hip and trunk stabilization, while side plank, front plank and bilateral bridge could be highlighted as important tasks in a preventive program for female youth soccer players. For dynamic exercises, the activation level did not seem to be relevant enough to achieve meaningful strength gains.
    George Dallas, Angela Tsopanidou*, Alexandros Apostolidis, Nikolaos Apostolidis
    This study examined the acute effect of different types of warm-up on explosive strength of lower limb on countermovement jump (CMJ) performance on basketball players. Sixteen physical education basketball players (age: 21.81 ± 0.40 years) performed three CMJ at baseline and during the following 2-week period, they participated in four different training protocols, included (a) five sets of 30 sec of whole body vibration (WBV), (b) five drop jumps (DJs), one every 30 sec, (c) five sets of 30 sec WBV plus one DJ following the completion of each set (WBVDJ) and (d) 30 sec of no whole body vibration exercise (NWBVE). Eight minutes after the completion of each protocol, 3 CMJs were performed (post-test). The 2 (time) × 4 (protocols) ANOVA with repeated measures revealed significant interaction between the two factors (p = 0.001) on all the examined variables of CMJ. Bonferroni adjustment post-hoc pair-wise comparisons demonstrated significant differences on measurements compared to baseline values in the experimental protocols (p<.05), whereas no significant differences were found on NWBVE (p<.05). Furthermore, the WBVDJ protocol was superior compared to the other protocols (p<.05). In conclusion, the implementation of a WBVDJ protocol produces an increase in jump height, time flight, take-off velocity and power in the aforementioned physical education basketball players.
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