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  • ISSN: 2379-0571
    Volume 7, Issue 6
    Review Article
    Bernardino Saccomanni*
    Menisci are fibrocartilage formations that have multiple functional roles in the knee joint. After the better understanding of their function and also the observations of the changes of the knee joint after their removal, such as osteoarthritic changes, instability and changes on the allocation of the weight, a solution of repairing the tear was a demand. In our effort to conclude in one treatment protocol according to the meniscal tears we reviewed the literature for all the review articles of comparing methods of several suturing techniques of the meniscal tears. After reviewing all these articles someone could conclude that simple sutures, mostly horizontal but also vertical have more stability and they are a good and trustable solution for the suturing of a meniscal tears. They demand then very good technique and a lot of surgical time. These very important disadvantages try to solve the various meniscal implants, but with a lower stability so far.
    Haniel Soares Fernandes*
    Soccer is an extremely competitive sport, where the most match important moments can be defined in details. Use of ergogenic supplements can be crucial to improve the performance of a high-performance athlete. Therefore, knowing which ergogenic supplements are important for soccer players can be an interesting strategy to maintain high level this sport until final and decisive moments of match. In addition, other supplements, such as dietary supplements, have been studied and increasingly referenced in the scientific literature. But, what if ergogenic supplements were combined with dietary supplements? This review brings some recommendations to improve performance soccer athletes on the field through dietary and / or egogenic supplements that can be used simultaneously such creatine 3 to 5 g • day-1 or 0.075 g • kg-1 body weight (BW) • d-1, caffeine 3 to 6 mg • kg-1 BW around 60 minutes before match, sodium bicarbonate 0.1 to 0.4 g • kg-1 BW starting from 30 to 180 minutes before the match and a progressive dose regimen can be used to with doses 25 to 100 mg • kg-1 BW, β-alanine 3.2 and 6.4 g • d-1 provided in the sustained-release tablets divided four times a day, nitrate-rich beetroot juice 60g in 200mL of water (6 mmol of NO3- • L) around 120 minutes before match or training. Including a combination possible with taurine 50 mg • Kg-1 BW • d-1, citrulline 1.2 to 3.4 g • d-1 and arginine 1.2 to 6 g • d-1.
    Wlodzimierz S. Erdmann*, Andrzej Suchanowski, Piotr Zielinski, and Robert Urbanski
    It is considered that activity which lasts over one hour (training or competition) can be called high endurance. Long distance running is one example. It is a very demanding activity. Some ultra- marathon runs take several days to accomplish. Unfortunately, training and competition create medical problems: overtraining (physical and/or mental), wear and injury of the musculoskeletal system, disease, and even death. In order to run in a proper manner many training problems must be resolved. As a prophylaxis several areas of long distance running need to be taken into account, e.g. nutrition (before, during and after the training and competition), biomechanical (body characteristics, load, movement, forces) and physiological analyses (e.g. metabolic function, oxygen consumption), garments (especially shoes), accessories (e.g. chronometer), running surfaces (plain ground, artificial surfaces; dry, wet), technique and tactics of movement (e.g. distribution of velocity along the whole run), strategy (e.g. when and where to run, with whom), environment (e.g. air temperature and movement, sun radiation, precipitation) influence on athlete, medical approach (screening, monitoring of bodily and mental states, therapy procedures), physiotherapy (massage, physical therapy). The best long distance runners are Kenyans and Ethiopians. It is worthwhile conducting investigations into their habits, nutrition, and training and to try to implement them with other runners.
    Opinion
    Stasinopoulos Dimitrios*
    Chronic Patellar Tendinopathy (CPT) commonly referred to as Jumper’s knee or patellar tendonitis is the most common tendinopathy in the knee area and one of the two most common tendinopathies of the lower limb. Pain and decreased function are the main symptom of CPT. Diagnosis is simple. The symptoms are reproduced by (1) lower limb activities such as squat or hop; (2) palpation on the site of pain (mainly at the inferior pole of the patella); and (3) clinical tests such as decline test [1].
    Original Article
    Takashi Nagai*, Ryo Ueno, Luca Rigamonti, Nathaniel A. Bates, David A. Krause, Eric M. Crowley, Michael J. Stuart, and Nathan D. Schilaty
    Neck strength characteristics are proposed to play an important role in sports-related concussion (SRC) in high school football players. The purpose of this study was to examine and compare neck strength characteristics between high school football players with and without a SRC history. A total of 19 players with SRC history (CONC) were matched with players without SRC history (NO-CONC) based on: 1) grade, 2) position, and 3) body weight. The average recovery time after SRC episode was 1.9 ± 1.8 weeks. The average time between concussion and testing was 28.6 ± 21.8 months. A custom-built neck strength testing apparatus was used to examine neck strength characteristics in high school football players with and without SRC history. The following variables of interests were collected for statistical analyses: normalized peak force, force ratio, rate of force development, and force steadiness. Paired t-tests or Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used to compare two matched groups. For normalized peak forces, CONC had significantly higher neck flexion (CONC: 2.3 ± 0.5 N/kg, NO-CONC: 2.0 ± 0.6 N/kg, P = 0.031) and left lateral flexion strength (CONC: 1.9 ± 0.4 N/kg, NO-CONC: 1.7 ± 0.5 N/kg, P = 0.030) when compared to NO-CONC. There were no group differences in others variables. Contrary to the hypothesis, deficits in neck strength characteristics were not observed among the players with SRC history. In conclusion, neck muscle strength characteristics would likely be restored or minimally influenced by an episode of SRC among high school football players.
    Research Article
    Ronald Corbit Franks Jr., Jangwoo Jo, Melinda Valliant, Thomas Andre, Kathy Knight, Anne Bomba, and Martha Bass
    Relative energy deficiency in sport has been a phenomenon linked to increased injury rates and decreased performance across many sports. This research aims to exam the link between low energy availability and hypohydration with injury and illness in female collegiate soccer players. This study included 24 division I female soccer players for the duration of one competition season. Weekly diet logs and daily USG were assessed for meeting daily needs for caloric intake and hydration. A Welch’s ANOVA and Tukey’s post hoc statistical analysis was then run to assess the relationship between injury and illness. Hydration was found to be statistically significant across all injury/illness groups (9.146, p < .001, h2 = .012; d12 = .205, p < .01; d13 = .228, p < .001).
    Coral Falco*, Tone Nybaken, Rafael Alcazar and Raúl Landeo
    The purpose of the study was to assess changes in lower limb muscle power (J), heart rate (HR) and lactate concentration ([LA]) in response to a simulated taekwondo match. Six taekwondo athletes, 3 males (16.3 ± 1.3 years) and 3 females (18.6 ± 1.5 years), participated in the study. Athletes kicked during three two minutes round at intensity of 1:6. [LA] and J were measured after each round. Results showed a significant main effect of the J, HR and [LA] (p < 0.05). A between-subjects main effect was found for J, (p < 0.05), but not for HR, neither [LA] (p > 0.05). Concretely, the results showed that males jumped more than females, in all resting times (p < 0.05). A significant interaction effect (‘round’ x ‘sex’) was found for J, HR, and [LA] (p < 0.05). In conclusion, after an intense and explosive task, the athletes can jump higher, and therefore, be more explosive. A pre-training and competition warm up oriented to be explosive movements is recommended, especially in males.
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