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  • ISSN: 2379-0571
    Volume 8, Issue 1
    Research Article
    Colton L. Wood, Crystal Higginson, and David J. Berkoff*
    Purpose: Partial percutaneous tenotomy and fasciotomy are emerging minimally invasive treatment options for chronic, refractory tendinopathies and fasciopathies. Our aim is to investigate the effectiveness of ultrasound-guided partial percutaneous tenotomy and fasciotomy.
    Methods: We conducted a retrospective satisfaction review via telephone call of 316 patients who had completed partial percutaneous tenotomy or fasciopathy with the Tenex device approximately 1 to 1.5 years earlier. A survey asked patients to rate overall satisfaction, recent pain levels, and willingness to undergo the procedure again. We performed a global analysis as well as subgroup analyses based on associated procedure diagnoses, including insertional Achilles tendinosis, plantar fasciitis, and medial epicondylitis or lateral epicondylitis.
    Results: Of all 189 patients who completed the follow-up interview, 92.5% reported that they were “very satisfied” or “satisfied” with the procedure, 91% reported their pain in the past week was “none” or “mild pain”, and 95% reported they were “willing to undergo procedure again”. Within subgroup analyses, 90% of patients with medial or lateral epicondylitis, 96% with insertional Achilles tendinopathy, and 94% of those with plantar fasciopathy reported satisfaction with their procedure at >1 year follow-up.
    Conclusion: High rates (>90%) of satisfaction, reduced levels of pain, and willingness to repeat partial percutaneous tenotomy and fasciotomy with the Tenex device at >1 year post-procedure highlight the clinical value of this procedure. The results showed no correlation with age, and there was no significant difference between men and women relating to outcome or satisfaction with the procedure.
    Angela J McGlashan* and Dara M Twomey
    Facilitating the development of effective coach delivered sports safety interventions, as part of wider system-level and multifaceted Lower-Limb Injury Prevention (LLIP) efforts, is needed to meet public health priorities of ensuring safe and sustainable sport participation. However little research exists examining the practice behaviours and motivational-beliefs of coaches associated with LLIP, especially in the context of Australian football. The purpose of this preliminary study was to explore and describe the practice behaviours of coaches and their motivational beliefs (self-efficacy, outcome expectancies and risk perceptions) associated with LLIs and their prevention. Community-Australian football (AF) coaches from clubs in two Australian states completed a cross-sectional self-report questionnaire, based on a modified-Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) model. Just over half (58%) of coaches used LLIP strategies with their team. Sixty-nine percent had a formal training plan for the entire season, and most did not explicitly incorporate injury prevention exercise program (IPEP) components into their coaching practices, despite their views being favourable towards IPEPs. Coaches believed their players had a high chance of sustaining a LLI and that they could have serious consequences. They believed it was important to have current knowledge of LLIP approaches such as IPEPs, but many lacked the behavioural capability and self-efficacy to implement them. Sports medicine professionals and coach educators should promote IPEPs to ensure LLIs can be reduced, but need to address why IPEPs are not utilized in community-AF settings. Coach-targeted interventions should focus on strategies such as improving coach self-efficacy, reframing misconceptions, goal-setting and planning.
    Gobinath Aroganam*, Nadarajah Manivannan, David Harrison and Vanja Garaj
    Kicking is the fundamental skill in Football. 2 most common shots are Laces (In step) and Inside (Side foot). Key biomechanical features are Hip flexion, Knee extension, Backswing, Force on landing foot, Ball Contact and Follow through. In this experiment, a simple kick study with University football team regarding their technique upon Ball Contact is analyzed. “1-step” kicking analysis was done via video recording, importing into an application, plotting the motion of kick, and its velocities. An Inertial Measuring Unit sensor was placed on the front outer sole of the football boot to monitor the ankle rotations upon ball contact. The aim was to understand each player’s technique regarding their position profile and gameplay approach. Based on existing opinions on players, could technology analysis, with camera and sensor support observation assessment? A Decision matrix was created to rank each kicker against tracked features linking to selected biomechanics. After reviewing video and sensor data, 2 players showed differences compared to initial observed rank, with greater understanding of 1 player’s technique.
    Aline Suter, Philippe M Tscholl, Christian Hoser and Christian Fink*
    Introduction: This study presents 3 professional alpine skiers with a simultaneous rupture of the Patellar Tendon (PT), Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) and Medial Collateral Ligament (MCL) with a focus on the surgical techniques, functional outcomes and return to sports.
    Material and Methods: Between 2013 and 2018, three professional alpine skiers (one female, two male) sustained a concomitant rupture of the PT and ACL, combined with an additional complete or partial tear of the MCL and either a lateral meniscal tear or an affection of both menisci. All patients underwent acute, single-stage surgery with PT and MCL repairs as well as ACL reconstruction. Clinical and functional assessments (Lysholm and Tegner scores) were performed 6, 12 and 24 months postoperatively.
    Results: All three athletes returned to alpine skiing at the same professional pre-injury level. Postoperative functional scores at 6-month follow-up showed an average Lysholm score of 87 (range 67-100) and an average Tegner score of 8; at 12-month follow-up, the average Lysholm score was 91.7 (range 86-100) and the average Tegner score was 8; at 24-month follow-up, the average Lysholm score was 96.7 (range 94-100) and the average Tegner score was 8. The athletes returned to unrestricted snow training after 11 months (8-13 months) and returned to competition after 15.3 months (12-20 months).
    Conclusion: For all three patients a return to professional alpine skiing was possible after this complex knee ligament injury. This rare injury was always associated with a meniscal tear. Therefore, advanced surgical techniques combining arthroscopic and open approaches are necessary. A single-stage treatment combined with accelerated rehabilitation is recommended for professional athletes to minimize the time to return to sports.
    Karen M Skemp*, Marissa Stehly and Douglas D Baumann
    Ketogenic diets are very high-fat, moderate-protein, carbohydrate-restricted diets. Studies have shown that ketogenic diets induce favorable metabolic and physiological changes, including weight loss and improved body composition.
    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine if the ketogenic diet would produce a favorable impact on body composition by producing fat loss while maintaining lean body mass in resistance training women.
    Methods: A sample of 20 women were assigned to either the ketogenic group (N=10) who followed a ketogenic diet of 70% fat, 20% protein, and 10% CHO or a control group (standard diet group) (N=10) who followed their usual standard diet. Both groups participated in resistance training of at least 3 times a week for a duration of 4 weeks. All measurements were taken at week 0 and end of week 4.
    Results: Both the ketogenic group and control group participants lost overall body mass (2.35 lbs. + 3.67) and fat mass (1.06 lbs. + 2.97). Ketogenic group participants lost more overall body mass (4.36 lbs. + 3.59) than the control participants (0.34 lbs. + 2.57) (p=0.005). Fat mass decreased to a greater extent in the ketogenic group (2.15 lbs. + 2.46) compared to the control group which gained fat mass (+0.17 lbs. + 3.08) (p=0.03). Those in the ketogenic group did not lose more lean muscle mass than the control group.
    Conclusion: Results indicate that a ketogenic diet has a favorable impact on body composition of lean muscle mass and fat mass in female resistance training athletes.
    Research Article
    Lauren Porras*, Brendan Lawson, Caroline M. Barrett, Kenzie Jane Bowen Johnston, Andrea Dotson, Crystal Higginson, John D. Hales III, Marcia Newby-Goodman, Julie McNabb, Iva Darkina Ward, Kunal Agnihotri and Harry Stafford
    BESS scores have been shown to be reflective of balance deficits that can cause LE injury or concussions. There is no current literature that addresses whether these scores are predictive of injury.
    Objective: To find if a preseason BESS scores of 15 or greater is predictive of the development of LE injury or concussion and whether a prophylactic ankle rehabilitation program lowers this risk.
    Design: Prospective Cohort Study
    Setting: Sport Setting
    Patients or Other Participants: The North Carolina Central University football team from 2014 – 2016, and 2018.
    Interventions: A prophylactic ankle rehabilitation HEP was performed twice daily during the 2016 and 2018 seasons.
    Main Outcome Measures: Athlete preseason BESS scores and injury data from the season was analyzed using a multiple logistic regression. Those athletes with a BESS score of x≥15 underwent prophylactic ankle rehabilitation and the injury results were compared to see if there was a reduction in risk.
    Results: Elevated Bess scores (x≥15) proved to be non-predictive of LE Injury or concussion in both the control seasons (p = .55, p = .81) or the intervention seasons (p = .90, p = .69), nor did the ankle rehabilitation reduce the injury risk (p = .52, p = .71). A previous concussion did increase the risk of LE injury in the control seasons (p = .03).
    Conclusion: An athlete’s BESS score proved to be non-predictive of LE injury or concussion and the prophylactic ankle program did not reduce the risk of either. Suffering a previous concussion did show an increase in risk to subsequent LE injury.
    Short Communication
    Matthew Tran and Steven D. Stovitz*
    Objective: The primary aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) in patients seen with adhesive capsulitis (Frozen Shoulder, FS). Our secondary aim is to assess the prevalence of thyroid disease in these same patients.
    Design: A retrospective chart review.
    Setting: Orthopedics and Sports Medicine Clinics in the Minnesota-Fairview Network from 2009-2020.
    Participants: 638 patients (417 Females and 221 Males)
    Independent Variables: Frozen shoulder (FS)
    Main Outcome Measures: Diabetes mellitus (DM) or thyroid disease
    Results: Of the 638 FS patients, the total prevalence of DM was 49.8% (318/638). Among the 417 females with FS, 202 (48.4%) had DM. Among the 221 Male patients with FS, 116 (52.5%) had DM. The total prevalence of thyroid disease in frozen shoulder patients was 17.7% (113/638).
    Conclusion: Among those seen for FS, approximately one-half also suffered from DM and approximately one-fifth suffered from a thyroid condition. Our results suggest that clinicians should consider screening patients with FS for endocrine conditions.
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