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  • ISSN: 2373-9363
    Xylazine and Its Speedball Combination: Induction of Apoptosis by Intrinsic and Extrinsic Pathway in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells
    Authors: L.A. Silva-Torres, C. Velez and B. Zayas
    Abstract: Emerging drugs of abuse, such as xylazine (XYL), are receiving great interest due to increasing use and the potential health toxicity effects, in the addict population. XYL is an alpha two agonist without medical applications in humans.
    The Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder and Homelessness Project: Making Connections for Promising Practice
    Authors: Dorothy Badry, Christine Walsh, Meaghan Bell, Kaylee Ramage and Julia Gibbon
    Abstract: The focus of this brief paper is to describe a current research project exploring the lived experiences of individuals with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) who are supported by the homeless-serving sector in Calgary, Alberta.
    Latest Articles
    Review Article
    Dawn M Harbin and Ivan R Elder*
    16 males and 16 females age 18 and older at Morris Village (a SC State Inpatient Treatment Center) participated in a study attempting to use the PAI to predict their number of external excuses for using addictive substances. This research showed several PAI scales by themselves reliably and significantly predicted their number of excuses. Further, several PAI scales together reliably and significantly predicted a large amount of the total variance. There were gender differences in mean number of excuses but an Analysis of Variance failed to show reliability or significance.
    Original Research
    Razvodovsky YE*
    Background: beer is an alcoholic beverage, the use of which is associated with numerous adverse consequences, including an increased risk of injury, violence, chronic somatic diseases.
    Aims: a comparative analysis of the dynamics of the level of affordability of beer and the level of its sale in Russia.
    Methods: statistical analysis (Spearman correlation analysis, linear regression analysis) was carried out using the Statistica 12. StatSoft package.
    Results: the level of beer sales is closely correlated with the level of its economic affordability (r = 0.71; p <0.000). Calculations carried out using a linear regression model showed that with an increase in the price affordability of beer by 1%, the level of its sale grows by 0.61%.
    Conclusions: the results of this study indicate that the demand for beer in Russia is elastic in relation to price. The data obtained confirm the existing view that reducing the affordability of beer is a real way to reduce the level of its consumption.
    Research Article
    Eleni Tesfaye Tegegne*, Kaleab Tesfaye Tegegne, Abiyu Ayalew Assefa and Mekibib Kassa Tessera
    Background: khat chewing has been practiced from ancient by people in the Eastern part of Africa, the Arabian, Peninsula and other parts of the world. In Ethiopia, khat chewing is becoming habitual and the proportion of people chewing khat has significantly risen over the years and chewers population in Ethiopia is now 16% from the countrys population.
    The main aim of this study was to provide national data on life time prevalence of khat chewing and associated factors that will serve as evidence for policy and planning and as baseline data for further studies.
    Methods: The data for this study was extracted from the 2016 EDHS. The 2016 EDHS is the fourth and most recent in the Demographic and Health Survey series in Ethiopia. Socio demographic variables were selected based on their availability in the dataset Our analysis included all men and women age 15-49 years which resulted in a total weighted sample of 27,289 Descriptive statistics were employed to show the distribution of socio-demographic characteristics Logistic regression model was used to determine the true association between chat chewing and basic socio-demographic factors
    Results: Of the total sample of 27289 of men and women age 15-49 years at the time of survey, 18.3% (n = 5006) have life time that chewing in Ethiopia, About 71.7% of the variation in the outcome variable (that chewing) is explained by the independent variables included in model Men and women in the 15-19 age group 9.952 (AOR9.952 95% CI 6.156- 16.091) and Men and women age 15-49 years in urban areas 34.040 (AOR 34.040; 95% CI: 21.028--55.105) were found to be major contributing factors to the that chewing.
    Conclusions: Younger age and urban residence had a statistically significant association with that chewing. Therefore, to effectively control khat chewing in Ethiopia, Creating awareness and increasing knowledge on the harmful effects of that chewing are recommended. A particular attention should be given to young adolescent and urban areas
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