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  • ISSN: 2373-9363
    Early Online
    Volume 8, Issue 1
    Research Article
    Hendre Jones E, Stacey Klaman L, Catherine Leiner, Raquel da Silva Barros, Roberto Canay, Jessica Suarez V, Rocio Suarez Ordonez M and Kevin Grady EO
    Background: Substance use during pregnancy and early parenting years is a well-known global public health problem, but the literature comparing treatment programs for this subpopulation across countries is limited. This article both describes three women-centered treatment programs in the United States, Brazil, and Argentina and examines similarities and differences among the programs in terms of patient characteristics. Such an analysis can better inform clinicians in the assessment and treatment of women who use substances and improve the universal understanding about them.
    Methods: A secondary data analysis of patient characteristics (e.g., pregnant at treatment admission) and patient history (e.g., substance dependence diagnosis, family history of substance use, co-occurring mental health issues) of reproductive age women (N=356) from substance use treatment programs in the United States, Brazil, and Argentina.
    Results: The Horizons program admitted the highest percentage of pregnant women (60%), Lua Nova (36%), and Casa Santa Clara (17%). Horizons patients (82%) were more likely to have a substance dependence diagnosis than Lua Nova (15%) or Casa Santa Clara patients (13%). Horizons patients (78%) were more likely to have a family history of substance use than Lua Nova (15%) or Casa Santa Clara (57%) patients. Horizons was also more likely than Lua Nova or Casa Santa Clara to have patients who had entered mental health treatment (70% vs. 19% vs. 9%, respectively).
    Conclusion: Substance use problems that continue during pregnancy and parenting are common within different cultures and societies. These analyses identified similarities and differences in patient characteristics, history, and treatment programs. Cross-cultural comparisons of treatment approaches provide opportunities for clinicians to explore new ways of caring for this population.
    Hendre E. Jones*, Abdul Subor Momand, Ashley C. Lensch, Thom Browne, Brian Morales and Kevin E. OGrady
    Background: A worldwide and ever-growing population of children are using psychoactive substances. To slow this problem, the Child Intervention for Living Drug-Free (CHILD) Curriculum was created to train treatment providers on how to screen, assess, and treat children between the ages of 4-12 years of age exposed to or actively using psychoactive substances. The purpose of the present project was to evaluate the extent to which completion of a six-session training of the six courses of the CHILD Curriculum met the objective of increasing the participants knowledge of the Curriculums approach to treating children for substance use problems.
    Methods: 71 participants from Africa, Asia, and South America were invited for training and 100% accepted the invitation. Trainees completed an in-person small-group course, occurring over 32 days and comprising 256 total hours. During the CHILD Curriculum training, they completed six separate, 20-item, multiple choice knowledge assessment measures, one for each of the six courses comprising the Curriculum.
    Results: Significant (ps<.001) improvement in knowledge in each course was associated with a multivariate measure of strength of the relationship that indicated the change was substantial for five courses (R2s>.5) and moderate for a sixth course. Percentage change from baseline varied from a low of 17% to a high of 63%.
    Conclusion: The CHILD Curriculum provides a useful educational framework to ensure knowledge gains by trainees. This curriculum content and evaluation provides a framework for future training of providers to pre-adolescent children who use psychoactive substances or are at risk for such use.
    Mary Jeanne Kreek, Matthew Randesi, Yan Zhou*
    Endogenous opioid system plays an essential role in regulating alcohol consumption. Genetic deletion of mu-opioid receptor (MOP-r) decreases alcohol intake and reward in mouse models. A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; A118G, rs1799971) in human MOP-r gene (Oprm1) is associate with altered MOP-r activity, resulting in enhanced alcohol consumption and increased risk of developing alcoholism in individuals with at least one copy of G allele (AG and GG). The present study determined the impact of Oprm1 SNP on alcohol drinking using A112G mice (a functionally equivalent SNP in Oprm1 with a similar amino acid substitution in humans) in chronic excessive drinking model. We found that both AG and GG males had greater alcohol intake than AA males, suggesting that increased MOP-r signaling with one or two copies of G allele promoted alcohol consumption. Though AG+GG males showed more sucrose intake than AA males, there was no genotypic difference in saccharin intake. In contrast to males, females did not show any genotypic difference in alcohol, sucrose or saccharin consumption. Pharmacological blockade of MOP-r with low-dose naltrexone reduced intake in AG+GG males, with blunted effects in AA males, confirming that increased MOP-r signaling by G allele contributes to MOP-r mediated modulation of alcohol drinking. However, activation of kappaopioid receptors [KOP-] by nalfurafine only decreased intake in AA males, suggesting altered KOP-r responses by G allele. Together, our data suggest that there is selective involvement of Oprm1 G allele (one or two copies) in excessive alcohol drinking with sex difference and altered opioid receptor responses.
    Short Communication
    Nima Derakhshan, and Shekoofeh Yaghmaei*
    Objective: We intend to provide a subjective and scientific report on a tragic incident happened during COVID-19 outbreak in Iran which is a mass methanol poisoning in one of the provinces in Iran. Unexpectedly, this poisoning has outnumbered COVID-19 in mortality in Fars province which emphasizes the significance of this incident. Methanol poisoning cases count and its mortality was respectively so high. Accordingly, it can be distinguished as one of the largest methanol mass poisonings reported and this paper aims to present this poisoning quantitatively.
    Method: Comprehensive data on reported methanol poisoning and COVID-19 cases were collected from different reliable sources such as world health organization, Iran health ministry, and Iranian national official press. The similar data for mortality was also collected. We tried our best to have reliable data and collect as much as data available especially in case of methanol poisoning. The collected data is presented in this paper.
    Result: Highest poisoning mortality was observed in the first two months of the COVID-19 outbreak in Fars province, Iran. We also made this incident noted from a scientific point of view in order to investigate where this happening is rooted in. The main reason of such mass poisoning seems to be lack of knowledge about alcohol consumption in Iranian society.
    Conclusion: After discussing the causes of such events, we proposed some solutions in order to prevent recursion of such incidents which are mainly focused on educating society in order to provide them with necessary knowledge about alcohol.
    Perspective
    Sivaraman V*, Richey M, and Nasir ABM
    Risk factors for severe COVID-19 pathology are currently being investigated worldwide. Using a mouse model, we identify heavy alcohol and cannabinoid consumption as risk factors for increased pulmonary pathology in the setting of exposure to a microbial pulmonary pathogen (K. pneumoniae). We present observational evidence that pneumonia patients admitted to North Carolina hospitals have longer lengths of stay when they endorse alcohol use or have conditions considered alcohol-attributable. We are concerned that the observed increase in alcohol and legal cannabinoid sales during lockdown and quarantine may contribute to increased pulmonary pathology among patients who become infected with in COVID-19.
    Original Research
    HJ Odendaal*, M Human, C van der Merwe, LT Brink, DG Nel, and RD Goldstein
    Background: Depression in the peripartum period is prevalent in low-income-countries. The identification of women needing referral is often lacking and on the other hand, women in need of support and treatment do not make use of existing support.
    Objectives: To identify risk factors for fetal and postnatal consequences of depression in pregnancy and to investigate further management once women at risk have been identified.
    Methods: The Safe Passage Study was a large prospective multicenter international study. Extensive information, including the Edinburgh postnatal depression scale (EPDS), was collected during the study. At risk women were referred to the studys social worker (SW). Women were categorized according to risk on their EPDS results. Risk categories were characterized and investigated for infant outcomes.
    Results: Data from 5,489 women were available for analysis and revealed a 51% prevalence of prenatal depression. Fourteen percent of at-risk women attended SW appointments, while 36% accepted the SW referral but persistently failed to attend. At risk women were significantly younger, had less formal education, had lower monthly income, and lived in more crowded conditions. They used significantly more alcohol and cigarettes. Their infants had shorter gestational ages, lower birth weights and were more growth restricted. Infants of depressed women who missed appointments weighed less and were more growth restricted.
    Conclusion: Women with high EPDSs had less favorable socioeconomic conditions, used more alcohol or tobacco during pregnancy, and their infants weighed less with more growth restriction. Women who repeatedly missed their appointments came from the poorest socioeconomic conditions and their infants had worse birth outcomes.
    Costagliola M, and Atiyeh B*
    Burns are serious traumatic injuries. Their management follows a well-established hierarchy of priorities. Lifesaving is the primary objective, then after securing survival of the burn victim, treatment aims at functional recovery, and finally aesthetic restoration, bothessential for social rehabilitation and for a good quality of life. Deep burn wounds heal by scar formation that may become mostly hypertrophic or progress into frank keloids. Scars invariably retract causing serious deformities and contractions across joints. The following article summarizes the major sequalae observed in most burn survivors and outlines their management protocol.
    Review Article
    Alem Endeshaw Woldeyohanins, Betelhem Awoke, Christina Bereded, Kisant Tadesse, and Zemene Demelash Kifle*
    The objective of this review is to assess the hazardous effects of substance abuse in Ethiopia. Substance abuse is a maladaptive pattern characterized by repeated adverse consequences related to the repeated use of the substance. Alcohol, khat and cigarettes are commonly used substances in urban as well as rural areas. In this review first we stated the hazardous effect of substance abuse and then identifying the most commonly missed substance use and their legal consideration. In order to prevent and control the substance abuse is developing and implementing of laws and policy are important especially for developing countries like Ethiopia. Alcohol, khat and tobacco/cigarettes were reported to be commonly used. Substance abuse is recognized to be an emerging problem in Ethiopia; only limited information is available in the literature. The adverse impact of substance use on mental health, physical health and social wellbeing of students was also stated but not well reported. There is legal consideration from the Ethiopian proclamation and polices but still there is no clear and enough laws regarding for drug abuse.
    Research Article
    Michael A Bozarth* and Cindy M Pudiak
    Male, Long-Evans rats with lateral hypothalamic stimulating electrodes were tested using a threshold-tracking procedure. This procedure determined the minimum stimulation frequency (i.e., stimulation threshold) necessary to maintain =30 presses/min during daily 30-min test sessions. Rats were injected with cocaine hydrochloride (2.5 to 20 mg/kg, i.p.), pseudoephedrine hydrochloride (3 to 100 mg/kg, i.p.), nicotine bitartrate (0.063 to 1 mg/kg, s.c.), or caffeine (5 to 80 mg/kg, i.p.) immediately before testing. Peak threshold-lowering effects were determined during 180-min test sessions. Another series of tests compared the facilitatory effects produced by (i) different nicotine bitartrate administration conditions (i.e., pH-adjusted vs. pH-unadjusted solutions and s.c. vs. i.p. injection routes), (ii) nicotine freebase in pH-adjusted and pH-unadjusted solutions, and (iii) repeated nicotine bitartrate injections. These comparisons ensured that the most effective nicotine administration parameters were used.
    Short Communication
    Michael A Bozarth*
    Considerable attention has been given to the apparent similarities between nicotines effects and those of cocaine and other addictive drugs on brain reward systems. These apparent similarities ignore important quantitative differences. Indeed, the effects of nicotine on brain reward systems has been shown consistently to be significantly weaker than the effects produced by prototypic addictive drugs such as cocaine.
    Research Article
    Gudisa Bereda*
    Background: The COVID-19 pandemic is expected to continue to impose enormous burdens of morbidity and mortality while severely disrupting societies and economies worldwide. Vaccines are a key strategy to stop the escalation of the COVID-19 pandemic. Vaccines are the effective way to control and prevent a several diseases, save lives, and reducing current health emergency, as well as increasing the immunity of the population.
    Objective: To find out eagerness to acceptance of SARS-COV-2 vaccine among health care workers in Oromia regional state, Ethiopia: An online-based cross-sectional study
    Methods: An online based cross sectional study design was carried out from April 18/2021 to June 19/2021.Data was collected through employing online questioner, and then the collected data were coded and analyzed by statistical packages for social sciences 25.0 version statistical software. The statistical significance was set at a p-value =0.05.
    Findings: The current study revealed that 178(42.2%) of health care workers intended to receive the SARS-COV-2 vaccines. The results of this study showed that the majority of participants dont believe that SARS-COV-2 vaccine is effective and safe (n=279.66.1%),and couldnt save lives (n=228,54.1%).Factors such as age group >55(AOR:2.75;95%CI: 1.092-5.472;P=0.008),Male(AOR:1.86; 95%CI: 1.243-2.796;P=0.003),nurses (AOR: 2.17;95%CI:0.621-5.087;P=0.0094) and midwives (AOR:2.521;95%CI:2.497-8.24; P=0.0002),married (AOR:1.74;95%CI: 0.218-4.530;P=0.006), health care workers who had contact with COVID -19 patient were twice as likely to accept the vaccine (AOR:1.93;95%CI: 1.360- 3.784;P=0.0001) and health care workers who indicated that they had more serious medical condition (AOR:2.61;95%CI:0.981-3.618;P=0.007) proved to be significant predictors of the acceptability of the COVID-19 vaccine. Factors such as taking vitamin C(AOR:1.624;95%CI:0.945-2.596;P=0.0003), poor safety of vaccines (AOR: 7.041;95%CI:3.692-13.375;P=0.000),those believe effective medicine avail for treating COVID-19 (AOR:2.16;95%CI:1.596-3.485; P=0.0076), no adequate trials about COVID-19 (AOR:7.041;95%CI:3.692-13.375;P=0.000),and unwanted side effects of the vaccines (AOR: 3.422;95%CI:1.448-8.096;P=0.005) were identified as indicators why health care workers would decline uptake of COVID-19 vaccines.
    Conclusion and recommendation: This survey revealed that the eagerness to acceptance of covid-19 vaccine among health care workers in Oromia regional state was somewhat meager. Nurses and Midwives were more likely to accept the SARS-COV-2vaccines than others health care workers. Oromia health bureau should have to give training about SARS-COV-2vaccine to all health care workers to strengthen SARS-CoV-2 vaccine acceptance.
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