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  • ISSN: 2373-9363
    Early Online
    Volume 5, Issue 3
    Research Article
    Loredana Marchica*, Yaxi Zhao, and Jeffrey Derevensky
    Most individuals have daily, if not constant access to the internet. The increased accessibility of internet use has coincided with an increased availability and social acceptance of gambling behaviours. This trend increases the possibility that gamblers who use the internet as a means to gamble will acquire information on problem gambling online as well. Knowledge about the content and quality of these gambling-related sites will benefit gambling prevention and intervention practices. Thus, the current study aimed to inspect the information on gambling found online using specific gambling search terms. Google and Bing AdWords were used in order to generate the 8 most frequent search terms receiving at least 1,000 global monthly searches. The dataset included the first page of Google search results among five English-speaking countries (Canada, New Zealand, U.K., Australia and the U.S) having the highest reported gambling losses per capita. Descriptive analyses revealed that most gambling-related information online pertained to health-information and help-programs. Further, Health on the Net criteria, a rating scale assessing reliability of health information was used to assess the sites accuracy. Overall, a mean score of 3.53 out of 8.0was found. Finally, differences by country analyses demonstrated that New Zealand had significantly more help-related program sites than the United Kingdom and the United States. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the nature of gambling-related material online and may impact possible future production of e-health sources of information.
    Mini Review
    LaVelle Hendricks* and LaShondra Manning
    Powdered alcohol or "palcohol" was originated in the 1970s, but resurfaced in 2007 in the Netherlands and again in the United States in 2014. The concept for powdered alcohol is that it can be sold cheaply in small packets and mixed with water. Once the powdered alcohol and water are mixed, the beverage fizzes and mimics flavors such as margarita, lemon drop, mojito and cosmopolitan, as well as maintain the effects of regular alcohol. Criticisms of palcohol is that it can be easily snorted since it is already in powdered form and that it can be easily concealed in venues that prohibit alcohol like schools. Furthermore, it has also been speculated that peoples drinks could be more easily spiked and cause controversy like the date rape drug. The makers of palcohol dispute these claims and are waiting for government approval to sell the product. In the meantime, cognitive behavioral therapy is recommended to address the misuse and abuse of alcohol, be it in a liquid or a powdered form.
    Perspective
    Ralph J. DiClemente*and Nihari Patel
    The World Health Organization (WHO) recently estimated that approximately 2.3 million individuals worldwide are co-infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) [1]. HIV-infected individuals were, on average, 6 times more likely than HIV-negative individuals to be infected with HCV [1].
    Review Article
    Liranso G. Selamu* and Yosph Dagne M
    Mental and substance use disorders are the leading cause of disability and associated burden globally and in Sub-Saharan Africa. Major mental disorder has the largest burden, yet the very limited mental health treatments in Sub-Saharan Africa are frequently restricted to tertiary psychiatric facilities treating those with drug addicted. This journal reviews focused on the current literature on substance use disorder and mental treatment in sub Saharan countries specifically Ethiopia, Somalia, Kenya, Djibouti, and Sudan contexts. The journal review was based on the recent literature from reliable sources like PubMed, WHO, PsycINFO, and Global Health using search terms such as substance abuse treatment in sub Saharan countries. Journals published before 2000 were excluded. Twenty one relevant reviews were identified and reviewed for background information and to illustrate mental and drug use disorders. Comprehensive overviews of drug disorder and mental treatment models were markedly absent from the recent literature. Thus, this review journal aimed at to find out the realistic treatment of drug disorder and mental treatment in sub Saharan countries, and suggested the further research would conduct well to blend inquiry with further interventions.
    Short Notes
    LaVelle Hendricks*, Jason L Daugherty and Quynh Dang
    Initially created in the 1950s as an anesthetic, 1-phenylcyclohexylpiperidine or PCP as it commonly called, has become a problem for the youth of today. This highly volatile chemical is synthesized in underground laboratories throughout the United States. PCP comes in a variety of forms. From capsules, to vials of clear odorless liquids and even powders it is difficult to spot and often confused with other drugs. It can be smoked, injected, snorted, and absorbed though the skin or even dropped into ones eye. Time of onset of symptoms is directly related to the method of administration. Although its use is widespread it is often overlooked and users under the influence of PCP are mistakenly thought to be utilizing different drugs. In this paper I intend to explore in depth what exactly PCP is and how its use can affect those who choose to partake of it. I will also explore the signs and symptoms of those under its influence, and possible treatment.
    Research Article
    Amir Faisal Mohd Khairi*, Hejar Abdul Rahman, and Sri Ganesh Muthiah
    Introduction: Drug abuse places a heavy burden on public health systems in terms of treatment, care, prevention and their health consequences.The objective of this study was to determine risk factors associated with drug abuse among Malay males FELDA settlers in Jerantut, Pahang.
    Methods: A population based unmatched case control study was conducted in FELDA settlements in Jerantut, Pahang. Cases were defined as confirmed male drug abuser aged 18 to 60 years old. Controls defined as those who had never used any drugs in their lifetime. A total of 180 cases were selected randomly from NADA list, 180 controls were selected randomly from FELDA name list. A self-administered questionnaire was used in this study. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed using SPSS 22.0. The final model was adjusted for age groups, marital status, education level, employment status, monthly income, smoking status, alcohol consumption, peer influence, self-esteem, family structures, family involvement in drug abuse and religiosity scale.
    Results: The response rate for case is 180 (89.1%) and 180 (90.0%) for the controls. The final model has a good fit. The highest risk of drug abuse was in age group 20 to 29 years compared to age group 40 to 49 years (aOR=6.93, 95% CI=1.61, 29.83). Those who completed only until primary school had more risk of drug abuse compared to those in tertiary level of education (aOR=11.36, 95% CI=1.78, 72.55). Cigarette smoking had higher risk of drug abuse compared to non-smoker (aOR=10.56, 95% CI=3.14, 35.56). A person who had consumed alcohol had higher risk of drug abuse compared to those who had never consumed alcohol (aOR=9.14, 95% CI=3.75, 22.27). Low self-esteem increases risk of drug abuse compared to normal self-esteem individual (aOR=7.34, 95% CI=3.66, 14.72). High resistance to peer influence was a protective factor for drug abuse (aOR=0.31, 95% CI=0.16, 0.62). Individuals with family members involved in drug abuse had higher risk of being a drug abuse compared to those who had none drug abuse in the family (aOR=4.28, 95% CI=1.80, 10.17).
    Conclusion: The risk factors associated with drug abuse are lower education level, smoking, alcohol consumption, low self-esteem, young age, and having family members involvement in drug abuse. High resistance to peer influence was a protective factor for drug abuse.
    Biet Michael, Ton Anh Tuan, Delabre Jean-Francois, Morin Nathalie, and Dumaine Robert*
    Rationale: In-utero exposure to tobacco smoke is strongly associated to sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) with cardiac arrhythmias considered the final cause of death. The mechanisms causing these arrhythmias remain largely unknown but seem to be linked to conduction anomalies and the inability of the newborn to accelerate cardiac rhythm at the onset of apnea.
    Objectives: We previously reported that in-utero exposure to nicotine delays the development of the heart sinoatrial node and reduce its innervation for several weeks after birth in rabbits. Our goal with this study is to determine if exposing rabbit fetus to nicotine also altered the sodium current (INa) response to adrenergic stimulus in newborn kittens. Our general hypothesis is that a loss of adrenergic response prevents heart acceleration and awakening of newborn during sleep apnea.
    Methods and results: Using electrophysiological techniques (patch clamp) on isolated cardiomyocytes we found that -adrenoreceptor agonist isoproterenol increases the amplitude of INa by 50% in sham rabbits but had no effects in kittens exposed to nicotine in-utero. Analysis of the data also showed that nicotine abolished the increase in late sodium current by isoproterenol, an effect that will reduce the ability of newborn to increase their heart rate and may promote bradycardia. These results may in part explain the lack of arousal from sleep apnea in nicotine exposed infants and suggests that other arrhythmogenic mechanisms may also contribute to SIDS.
    Conclusion: Our study provides the first evidence that nicotine may precipitate SIDS by altering the adrenergic response of the heart. This represents a new paradigm based on remodeling the cardiac electrical system as opposed to the current dogma of a centrally mediated respiratory deficit. The data also raise awareness on the use of nicotine replacement therapies for pregnant women.
    Editorial
    Brian P. Smith* and Mark J. Seamon
    The real trouble with mass casualty events is that they are thought of as events. As if there is some beginning, middle and end that play out in a logical sequence with tidy openings and closures. Little Romeo and Juliets that fragment tragedy, making the stories more digestible.
    Review Article
    Pratima Murthy* and Shree Mishra
    While smoking prevalence is showing a decline in high income countries (HIC), smoking among pregnant women has also reduced and current prevalence in certain HIC is between 8.4 to 11.4%. In low and middle-income countries (LMIC), exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) and the use of smokeless tobacco (SLT) are significant problems. While pooled prevalence of smokeless tobacco use across 54 LMICs was 2.6%, several countries particularly in the south Asian and West Pacific region show tobacco use prevalence higher than the pooled prevalence and rates of SLT use among pregnant women in Nepal, Bangladesh and India are 22%, 20% and 15% respectively. In many countries, pregnant women face high rates of exposure to SHS. Maternal smoking is associated with several adverse consequences for both mother and child. While a range of adverse fetal outcomes have been described, the strongest causal effects are for ectopic pregnancy and orofacial clefts. With SLT use, pre-term and small for gestation have been consistently demonstrated. Meta-analytical studies support the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions for smoking cessation. The same cannot be said of smokeless tobacco use among pregnant women in LMIC. Poverty, illiteracy, use of tobacco in the partner, poor motivation to quit, stigma are some of the common barriers to treatment in all settings, and decision not to breast-feed has been shown to be associated with a greater likelihood of relapse. There is no supporting evidence for pharmacotherapy for tobacco cessation in pregnancy and there is a growing concern of the use of E-cigarettes by pregnant women under the perceived notion that they are safer. Approaches to cessation, in addition to providing individual support, must also focus on evidence-based population strategies to reduce tobacco consumption. Asking for tobacco use and tobacco exposure, objective documentation and support to quit and to reduce SHS exposure must be offered in all maternity settings.
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