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  • ISSN: 2373-9363
    Volume 2, Issue 1
    Editorial
    Abbas Hagparast1* and Ali Yoonessi2,3
    Addiction has been one of the least understood disorders of the central nervous system. The complexities of deregulations in neurotransmitters and also variety of involved nuclei of the brain make finding the main culprit a dilemma. However, it is understood that one of the main changes in addiction is a biased attention to the stimuli related to the drugs that in healthy subjects can be ignored. This biased attention seems to be triggered by a malfunction of circuitry of reward-punishment, which is conditioned by the euphoria induced by the drug (reward), and in later stages by the physiological discomfort of inaccessibility of the drug (punishment). Several clinical studies have shown promising results by controlling the bias of the attention in drug users [1,2], which has suggested it as a potential main target for therapeutic efforts.
    Nicole Waller, Ann Arbor, Laura Moynihan, and David Cordova*
    Recent changes in public health policy, including the National Prevention Strategy and the Affordable Care Act, require a shift in perspective on the development, delivery, and evaluation of substance abuse and STI/HIV preventive interventions [1]. E-health technology and primary care settings, for example, offer innovative interventions and contexts to deliver substance abuse and STI/HIV prevention programs. Yet, few primary care-based preventive interventions have been found to be efficacious in preventing substance abuse and sexual risk behaviors. Thus, there remains the need to address this gap and work toward integrating primary care and public health [2].
    Jiang Yu*
    Asians are the fastest growing ethnic group in America. Take New York for example. Of the 14,674,252 persons identified as Asian Americans, 10 percent reside in New York State. Asian Americans tend to live in closely-kit communities. Seventy-three percent of Asian Americans living in New York State resides in New York City. Additionally, Asians are a diverse ethnic group, and New York City has one of the most diverse Asian populations in the nation; of the population in the City, 50 percent are Chinese, 19 percent Indian, 9 percent Korean, 6 percent Filipino, 2 percent Japanese, and 1 percent Vietnamese. Other ethnic Asian groups in the City include Bangladeshi, Pakistani, Tai, Cambodian, Laotian, Malaysian, Indonesian, and Sri Lankan (USCB, 2010).
    Wang J*
    The analytic methods often used in drug use studies, such as ANOVA, multiple regression, logistic regression, multilevel models, and structural equation modeling (SEM) including path analysis, factor analysis, and latent growth curve model, are variable-centered approaches. Those approaches assume that the study sample arises from a homogeneous population; and focus on relations among variables, such as effects of independent variables on dependent variables. When typology of drug use or pattern of growth trajectories of drug use practices is of interest, person-centered analytical approach should be applied. In recent years, mixture modeling - a person-centered analytic approach - has increasingly gained its popularity in many research fields, including drug use studies. Assuming a heterogeneous population, mixture modeling aims to identify a finite number of subpopulations, called latent classes, that are unknown a priori within the population under study [1,2-4]. Individuals within a latent class share characteristics thus are more similar than those between latent classes. Mixture modeling can be readily applied to both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies.
    Research Article
    Anjali Varma1*, Roopa Sethi2, David W. Hartman3, Robert Herbertson4, Anita S. Kablinger3 and Richard Seidel3
    Abstract:
    Long term use of opioids has been linked to sexual dysfunction. Problems with sexual functioning have been reported in males maintained on buprenorphine/naloxone (bup/nlx), though the results are variable. Bup/nlx is becoming a popular maintenance option for women given its advantages over methadone. Sexual functioning of females maintained on bup/nlx has not been studied so far.
    Objectives: Examine the sexual functioning and quality of life of opioid dependent females maintained on bup/nlx.
    Methods: Twenty one non pregnant females maintained on bup/nlx in an office based setting were interviewed using a pre-designed data sheet for socio-demographic and clinical histories. Subjects completed 3 self-administered questionnaires- Female sexual function index (FSFI), Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) and the Quality of life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire- Short Form (Q-LES-Q-SF).Results were compared to existing community norms.
    Results: 21 subjects with mean age 35.6±8.4 (19-50) years, mean body mass index (BMI) 32.3 kg/m2± 8.9 (19.0-52.1) and mean daily dose of bup/nlx was 17.7±6.0 mg/day participated. Subjects were more likely to have sexual dysfunction (19.1±12.8) p<0.0001 on FSFI. Quality of life was rated significantly poorer on Q-LES-Q-SF (47.6±7.9; p<0.0001). Results on DASS were not significant. Significant correlation was found between BMI and sexual functioning and sexual functioning and quality of life, while other factors were not significant.
    Conclusions: Maintenance with Bup/nlx in women may be associated with significant sexual dysfunction and quality of life impairment. This may impact compliance. Further research is warranted as bup/nlx becomes a popular treatment among females with opioid dependence.
    Joris J. Van Hoof1* Gerben Boeynaems2 and Nicolaas Vanderlely2
    Abstract:
    Purpose: study the relation between compliance to the legal age limits for alcohol sales and alcohol intoxication in adolescents.
    Methods: from 2007 till 2012 we collected data on adolescents, with a positive BAC, treated in a hospital. Within the Dutch Pediatric Surveillance System (NSCK), pediatricians report adolescents and fill in a questionnaire. In 2012 the questionnaire was extended, involving questions on how and where alcohol was obtained.
    Results: in total 3,286 adolescents were treated, mainly (88%) related to severe alcohol intoxication; main age 15.3 years, and 54% were boys. BAC level is 1.84 on average, and reduced consciousness last almost three hours. Almost 18% of the adolescents with alcohol intoxication drank themselves into the hospital in a bar or discotheque. Out of the people who indicated how and where they obtained alcohol in about 20% vendors in supermarkets, liquor stores and bars offended the legal age limits.
    Conclusions: alcohol intoxication treatment remains an issue of importance. For the first time worldwide, we demonstrated that non-compliance with the sales of products with a legal age limit, cause the severe consequences of alcohol intoxication. We call for the catering industry and retailers to improve their compliance, and governments to increase enforcement.
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