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  • ISSN: 2373-9363
    Volume 2, Issue 2
    Research Article
    Bryan R. Garner*, Mark D Godley, Lora L Passetti, Rodney R Funk and William L White
    Abstract: The present quasi-experiment examined the direct and indirect effects of recovery support telephone calls following adolescent substance use disorder treatment. Six-month outcome data from 202 adolescents who had received recovery support calls from primarily pre-professional (i.e., college-level social service students) volunteers was compared to 6-month outcome data from a matched comparison sample of adolescents (n = 404). Results suggested adolescents in the recovery support sample had significantly greater reductions in their recovery environment risk relative to the comparison sample (ß = -.17). Path analysis also suggested that the reduction in recovery environment risk produced by recovery support calls had indirect impacts (via recovery environment risk) on reductions in social risk (ß=.22), substance use (ß=.23), and substance-related problems (ß=.16). Finally, moderation analyses suggested the effects of recovery support calls did not differ by gender, but were significantly greater for adolescents with lower levels of treatment readiness. In addition to providing rare empirical support for the effectiveness of recovery support services, an important contribution of this study is that it provides evidence that recovery support services do not necessarily have to be “peer-based,” at least in terms of the recovery support service provider having the experiential credentials of being “in recovery.” If replicated, this latter finding may have particularly important implications for helping increase the recovery support workforce.
    Sara A Jahnke*, Walker S Carlos Poston and Christopher K Haddock
    Abstract: Epidemiologic studies find that many fire service personnel use alcohol at a high rate and report frequent binge drinking episodes. Using formative research methods, we explored perceptions and beliefs about the role of alcohol within the fire service community. Participants were 423 firefighters and fire service administrators from across the United States (US). There were a number of reasons given for the rates of alcohol use among firefighters including the unique shift schedules of career firefighters, the camaraderie and peer support for alcohol consumption, use as a means of stress management, and the traditions surrounding consumption among firefighters. Results point to key areas for prevention and intervention efforts for the fire service.
    Isabel Morales-Muñoz1,2,4*, Pablo Puras2, Alina Rigabert1,2, María José Álvarez-Alonso1,2, Miguel Ángel Jiménez-Arriero2,3,4, Guillermo Ponce2,3,7, Isabel Martínez-Gras2,3,7, Rosa Jurado-Barba1,2,3,5, Stephan Moratti6,8 and Gabriel Rubio1,2,4,7
    Abstract: Background: Substance-related attentional bias refers to the reactivity to substance-related cues. This attentional bias to drugs has been examined in different addictive disorders such as cocaine, alcohol or tobacco dependence. There is extensive evidence regarding the attentional bias to alcohol-related cues in Alcohol Dependent (AD) patients. Furthermore, there is evidence regarding the higher attention bias to cocaine-related cues in Cocaine Dependent (CD) subjects after the exposure to alcohol consumption. However, there are still no data on the potential attentional bias to alcohol-related cues in patients diagnosed with CD.
    Objectives: we aimed to assess attentional bias in a sample of alcohol and cocaine users with a visual probe task.
    Material and methods: We used a sample of 35 AD patients, 30 CD patients and a control group formed by 35 healthy volunteers. Moreover, and to further study alcohol attentional bias in CD subjects, we divided this group in terms of their history of alcohol consumption. All subjects were examined using the visual probe task, in order to study the attentional bias to alcohol-related cues.
    Results: The patients that showed the greater attentional bias to alcohol-related cues were the AD subjects, followed by the CD patients and finally by controls. AD and CD exhibited lower reaction times to alcohol- congruent condition compared to the alcohol-incongruent, whereas in controls the opposite effect was found.
    Discussion: Our results indicated that although attentional bias to alcohol-related cues was clearly found in AD and CD patients, these data are in accordance with the hypothesis about the fact that cocaine dependence increases the attentional bias to other drugs, such as alcohol.
    Review Article
    Chitlada Areesantichai* and Usaneya Perngparn
    Abstract: Tailored Goal Oriented Community Brief Intervention Model (TGCBI) is the first adapted alcohol intervention for risky drinkers in a Thai community. The TGCBI has 2 levels (the public and individual levels). The TGCBI trial was to compare two high-risk drinking prevalence communities in Lop Buri Province between the TGCBI (a community in Phatthana Nikhom District) and control (a community in Chai Badan District) groups. The samples were recruited from those in both sites aged 19-65 whose AUDIT scores identified them as risky drinkers. The TGCBI consisted of 4 sessions over two months.
    The effectiveness of TGCBI compared to controls has been presented. Hence, the numbers of TGCBI sessions that the risky drinkers attended are assessed.
    Outcome measures included number of non-drinking days at 1, 3 and 6 month follow up. ANOVA was used to measure the outcomes. Results showed that the number of non-drinking days in previous month were not significantly different between sites at baseline. However, there were significant differences at all three follow up points with the treatment group having significantly more non-drinking days. The number of TGCBI sessions attended was positively correlated with the number of non-drinking days.
    David S Festinger*, Karen L Dugosh, Douglas B Marlowe, Ashley Harron, Nicolle Clements and Chloe A Brown
    Abstract: Research has demonstrated the high prevalence of pro-drug use misinformation and propaganda. Adolescents may be particularly susceptible to these drug-related threats given their high rates of drug use, extensive Internet use, and the age-related limits to their executive functioning. The current study evaluates WebSafe, a structure training designed provide parents with the awareness, knowledge, and practical strategies necessary to help protect their children from these threats. Findings support the acceptability of the WebSafe training and its preliminary efficacy.
    Giancarlo Lucchetti1,2* and Alessandra Lamas Granero Lucchetti2
    Abstract: Many studies have been pointing to the role of cultural, ethnical, and intrapersonal factors on substance use and abuse. From these several cultural factors, religious/spiritual beliefs appear to be important factors associated with substance use patterns. In the present article, we aim to review the relationship between spirituality, religiosity and substance use; to present the proposed mechanisms and to understand the role of spiritual interventions on substance use treatment. We found strong evidence that higher religious involvement, such as organizational religiosity (religious attendance), non-organizational religiosity (private religious practices), and some religious affiliations (Protestants) were associated with less use of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drugs. However, the possible mechanisms for this relation and the role of religiosity/spirituality for substance use treatment should be better explored.
    Editorial
    Abbas Hagparast1* and Ali Yoonessi2,3
    Abstract: Addiction has been one of the least understood disorders of the central nervous system. The complexities of deregulations in neurotransmitters and also variety of involved nuclei of the brain make finding the main culprit a dilemma. However, it is understood that one of the main changes in addiction is a biased attention to the stimuli related to the drugs that in healthy subjects can be ignored.
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