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  • ISSN: 2373-9363
    Volume 3, Issue 1
    Research Article
    L.A. Silva-Torres1,2*, C. Vélez3 and B. Zayas1,3
    Abstract: Emerging drugs of abuse, such as xylazine (XYL), are receiving great interest due to increasing use and the potential health toxicity effects, in the addict population. XYL is an alpha two agonist without medical applications in humans. Our previous studies indicated XYL and its combination with cocaine (COC) and/or 6-monoacetylmorphine (6-MAM) induced apoptotic cell death and DNA fragmentation in endothelial cells. In addition XYL and 6-MAM trigger reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in these cells. This study aim is identify apoptosis path way in cell death and determine cell cycle effects of xylazine and its combination with COC and 6-MAM in Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC, EA.hy926). HUVEC were treated with XYL (60 µM), COC (160 µM), 6-MAM (160 µM), camptothecin (Positive control, 50 µM), XYL/COC (50 µM), XYL/6-MAM (50 µM) and XYL/COC/6-MAM (40 µM) for a period of 24 hours. Activation of caspases 8 and 9, and cell cycle assessment were analyzed using differential microscopy assays. Results reveal that all drugs tested in this study and their combinations activate caspases 8 and 9, involved in extrinsic and intrinsic pathways respectively. Also, these drugs in combination have presented cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase. While cells treated with COC and 6-MAM, show cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase. The findings suggest that these drugs trigger apoptotic process in human endothelial cells involving both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways, and furthermore induce cell cycle arrest in two of the major checkpoints.
    Angela Nardecchia* and Angela Hungrige
    Abstract: Individuals who have endured childhood sexual abuse (CSA) often struggle with long-term consequences throughout their lives. Research examining consequences of CSA, such as somatic, mental, and emotional distress are reviewed. Using archival data, the current study (a) explored prevalence of CSA among adults in addiction treatment, (b) examined if diagnoses and addictive behaviors differ for those who report CSA, and (c) examined potential differences in chemical and process addictions and diagnoses for those who report CSA. Eighty-eight participants reported CSA (25.8%; N = 246). Chi-square analysis found the most significant differences between those who reported CSA and those who did not report CSA was in compulsive behaviors, specifically related to hypersexual behavior, disordered eating, and gambling. Statically significant results were also found in the use of sedative hypnotic drugs c2 (1, N = 246) = 0.046, p< .001. Increasing awareness of the possible addictive behaviors that correlate with CSA could improve assessment of trauma's impact on addiction and increase an understanding of how interventions can be focused for addiction recovery in populations with CSA. Future research might examine the impact of targeted early interventions around compulsive sexual, food, and gambling behaviors for survivors of CSA.
    Short Communication
    Vanessa Lentillon-Kaestner*
    Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate how and why injections were used in professional and amateur cycling. Sixteen semi-structured interviews were conducted with cyclists hoping to join a professional team (n=6), neo-professional cyclists (n=2), and former professional cyclists (n=8). Professional cycling was perceived harmful. The injections and self-injections were perceived as a necessity at the professional level, being more efficient for recovery than oral ingestion. Self-injections were less widespread in amateur than in professional cycling and were more hidden in professional cycling since the various doping scandals. The more experienced cyclists played an important role in the younger cyclists' initiation to self-injections. The acceptance of injections and self injections in the professional peloton follows the harm reduction strategies. Harm reduction strategy may be a more efficient approach to doping than actual WADA zero-tolerance approach.
    Dorothy Badry1*, Christine Walsh1, Meaghan Bell2, Kaylee Ramage1 and Julia Gibbon1
    Abstract: The focus of this brief paper is to describe a current research project exploring the lived experiences of individuals with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) who are supported by the homeless-serving sector in Calgary, Alberta. Individuals with FASD are considered vulnerable due to their disability, which often goes unrecognized and thus viewed as social, emotional and behavioral challenges. It is widely known that individuals with FASD face challenges as a result of brain damage from prenatal alcohol exposure. It is suspected that many individuals with FASD are being served by the Calgary Homeless Foundation's (CHF) frontline agencies without recognition ofthe specialized supports they may need. Our research aims to learn from the experiences of individuals with either diagnosed or suspected FASD who are or have been homeless and from interviews with a wide range of professionals working in the homeless-serving sector regarding their perception of needs and service gaps for this population.
    M Carmen Míguez* and Beatriz Pereira
    Abstract: Several studies have linked smoking to negative affect in different populations.
    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate if smoking is associated with the presence of depressive symptoms in pregnancy.
    Methods: The sample comprised 738 early pregnant women from a specific health area in Spain. A questionnaire that included sociodemographic variables and questions about pregnancy and consumption of tobacco was used. To assess depressive symptoms two scales were used: The Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) and the Edinburg Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS).
    Results: Of the 738 women, 15.9% said they continued smoking, either occasionally or daily, after they knew they were pregnant. By comparing the data of smokers and non smokers, we found that the mean scores on the BDI-II (9.21 vs. 6.67) and the EPDS (7.0 vs. 4.92) are higher in pregnant smokers, and in both cases the differences were statistically significant (p <.001). We also found that the percentage of pregnant women with possible depression is higher among smokers, according to the BDI-II (11.1% vs. 3.5%) and the EPDS (30.8% vs. 14.0 %).
    Conclusions: These results indicate an association between depression and smoking among pregnant women in this sample. Furthermore, high scores on the EPDS predict tobacco consumption in early pregnancy.
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