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  • ISSN: 2373-9363
    Volume 5, Issue 1
    Research Article
    Lara Ambrosi, Matthew T. Borden*, Grace C. Phelan, Michael Blea, and Stanley A. Nasraway
    Study objective: To characterize national hospital practices for treating patients with ethanol for alcohol withdrawal syndrome. Design: Cross-sectional survey.
    Setting: A 9-item survey conducted via telephone or email.
    Participants: Physician, clinical pharmacist or clinical dietitian from 117 academic medical centers located within the United States.
    Measurements and main results: Data were collected between August and October 2014. Hospitals ranged in size from 160-3,098 beds (mean 659). Of the 117 institutions that were contacted, 88 (75.2%) responded. Ethanol is administered at 31 (35.3%) of responding institutions. Yet, no protocol is in place to facilitate ethanol administration in 23 of the 31 medical centers (74%). The Department of Pharmacy is responsible for procurement and distribution of the ethanol in 27 (87%) of these medical centers.
    Conclusions: Over one-third of surveyed academic medical centers in the United States continue to dispense ethanol to patients despite a lack of established guidelines regarding ethanol administration for alcohol withdrawal syndrome. The vast majority do so without an institutional protocol or policy.
    Eric Rice*, Amanda Yoshioka-Maxwell, Harmony Rhoades, Hailey Winetrobe, Robin Petering1, and Anamika Barman-Adhikari
    Homeless youth report more marijuana use than stably housed youth; their marijuana use has been linked to the marijuana-using behaviors of their peers. This study was the first to examine the process of network influences in marijuana use with population-level (sociometric) social network data over time. Network data were collected from a population of homeless youth recruited from a drop-in center in Los Angeles every 6 months for 1 year (n = 237, 263, and 312). For each panel, a sociomatrix was generated based on youth nominating other youth in the sample. Degree centrality, betweenness, eigen vector centrality, and number of marijuana-using linkages represented network influence; logistic regression assessed associations with heavy marijuana use. Approximately 60% of the network membership changed between panels. Individuals with more network connections to other heavy marijuana users and youth with more connections to any other youth reported more heavy marijuana use. These results suggest that in transient, high-risk populations, social influence processes largely affect individual substance use patterns. Heavy marijuana use appears to be popular and important to the construction and reconstruction of these networks over time.
    Hoang My Nguyen*
    Though male sex work is a global phenomenon, systematic reviews on this topic are scant. Our understanding of scholars’ perspectives on this topic remains unclear. The article reviews past and recent social science research on male sex work. First, this article provides a brief history of male sex workers and their society, demonstrating that their relationships have varied through times ranging from tolerable to contentious. Secondly, scholars’ perspectives on male sex work and discussion on how these discourses shape the conceptualization of male sex work are provided. Thirdly, this review provides dominant legal and social responses to this topic. Lastly, this article discusses on how emerging technologies shape and influence new conditions to understand on this topic.
    Mary F. Brunette*, Joelle C. Feiron, Kelly Aschbrenner, Daniel Colctti, Timothy Devitt, Mary Ann Greene, Amy Harrington, Gregory C. MoHugo, Samh Pratt, Delbert Robinson, Jill Williams, and Haiyi Xie
    Background: Over half of young adults with schizophrenia smoke. Quitting before age 30 could prevent some of the disparate morbidity and mortality due to smoking-related diseases. However, little research has addressed smoking in this group nor evaluated strategies to help young adults with schizophrenia quit smoking.
    Methods: We compared demographic and smoking-related characteristics of young adults and those over 30 years of age among 184 smokers with schizophrenia. With a series of regression models, we assessed whether age, gender, smoking characteristics, social norms, attitudes, and perceived behavioral control predicted intention to quit smoking and to use cessation treatments.
    Results: Young adults had smoked for fewer years, had lower nicotine dependence, and had lower breath carbon monoxide levels than those over 30, yet awareness of the harms of smoking and readiness to quit were similar between groups. Attitudes about smoking, attitudes about cessation treatment, social norms for cessation treatment, and perceived behavioral control for cessation treatment significantly predicted intention to use cessation treatment. Age was not a predictor of intention to quit, nor to use cessation treatment.
    Conclusions: Young adults with schizophrenia are amenable to smoking cessation intervention. Increasing awareness of the safety, efficacy and access to cessation treatments among smokers with schizophrenia and also among those in their social network may improve use of effective cessation treatment. These strategies may enhance the standard educational approach (increasing awareness of harms). Research is needed to evaluate such intervention strategies in smokers with schizophrenia of all ages.
    Perspective
    Brian L. Ackerman*
    Meditation/mindfulness based approaches offer a wealth of new ways to assess and intervene with those struggling with the challenges of substance use disorders. In this paper, I will introduce some of the core concepts and languages of a meditation /mindfulness based approach, and illustrate how they can be applied to assessment and treatment. I will introduce terms and conceptual frames, such, as cultivating awareness of our double nature, our dramatically shifting mental states, cultivating awareness of our over identification with our negative mental states, expanding the scope of toxicity awareness to include toxic thoughts and feelings and not just substances. In the context of toxicity, mindfulness is taught as essential filtering mechanism, a kind of mental dialysis to help to detoxify these toxic thoughts and feelings.
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