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  • ISSN: 2373-9363
    Volume 5, Issue 2
    Research Article
    Liranso G. Selamu*, Eliyas K. Abreha, and Israel F. Feyissa
    The aim of the study was to explore the substance abuse/drug use related knowledge and attitudes among youth in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Substance abuse and dependence are one of the most frequently occurring disorders in adolescents, young adults, and the general population. To achieve the study objectives, the study utilized the qualitative method to gather relevant, direct and rich information from participants. The study was conducted through critical literatures review, interviews, and focus group discussions. The participants were selected using purposive sampling technique. The collected data was analyzed thematically. The study found that substances abused by the participants include alcohol, nicotine, cannabis, heroin and etc. Their reasons for using these substances include individual, family, and environmental factors. However, peer group pressure was identified as the primary factor for youth substance use. The study emphasizes the painful nature of substance abuse among youth, yet at the same time, it succeeds in highlighting the strategies that can be employed to address substance abuse among youth. In addition, the study recommends a concerted effort by all the stakeholders in addressing the substance abuse problem.
    Camila Da Silva Barbosa, Camila Ribas Stefanello, Maicon Bonaldo Dias, Murilo Halberstadt Beskow, Emile Hirdes Kruger, Stephan Espinosa Meirelles, and Rafael Moreno Ferrode de Araujo*
    Most of the available information about risk factors for specific illicit drug related disorders (cannabis, cocaine powder and crack cocaine) during adolescence comes from studies that analyze the use of illegal substances as a single group. This study evaluated several risk factors for illicit drug related disorders separately, in a clinical sample of Brazilian adolescents. Post-traumatic symptoms were strongly associated with crack use disorder, paternal neglect was moderately associated with cocaine use disorder, and maternal suicidal behaviour was moderately associated with cannabis use disorder. The risk factors for illicit drug-related disorder among adolescents were different according to the substance of preference.
    Andrea S. Vincent, Kristen H. Sorocco, Bruce Carnes, Andrew J. Cohoon, and William R. Lovallo*
    Objective: A family history (FH+) of alcohol is more other substance use disorders (SUD) is an SUD risk factor in the offspring, although not all FH+ develop an SUD. To explore SUD predictors, we examined the joint impact of antisocial characteristics and exposure to early life adversity (ELA) among physically healthy young adults.
    Methods: We tested 727 persons, 18-30 years of age, diagnosed with (N = 220) and without (N = 507)an SUD to identify the strongest predictors, including: (a) a family history of SUD (FH+), (b) manifestation of antisocial tendencies using the Socialization scale of the California Personality Inventory (CPI-So), and (c) exposure to ELA,(d) along with symptoms of depression.
    Results: Recursive partitioning for SUD showed that antisocial CPI-So scores were the best single predictor of SUD status, correctly classifying 68% of the sample. CPI-So scores were progressively more antisocial in persons who had an SUD, were FH+, and had greater ELA (all ps = .0002). Principal components analysis found that CPI-So items comprising Home Life and Family Relationships along with Impulsivity and Norm Violation accounted for most of the variance in SUD status.
    Conclusion: Antisocial characteristics predicted SUD status in adulthood. FH+ persons are prone to antisocial characteristics and they are frequently exposed to ELA, which in turn may foster manifestation of an externalizing phenotype. Future studies on FH+ interactions with ELA exposure are called for in studies of SUD, focusing on social connectedness and disinhibition as two risk-prone behavioral phenotypes.
    Kameel Mungrue*, Christian Smith, Nikolai Lewis, Racheal Leo, Anujh Maharajh, Fadilah Khan, and Daena-Camille Ballack
    Background: Alcohol consumption is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality and hence is an important and ongoing public health challenge. While alcohol abuse and dependence have historically received the greatest attention, the detection and treatment of less severe alcohol use disorders particularly in primary care settings where assessment and intervention can be initiated early is the new focus.
    Objectives: The purpose of the study is to describe alcohol consumption patterns in a primary care setting and assess alcohol-related harm as the first steps to provide evidence for future interventions.
    Design and methods: A prevalence study was used; the population consisted of all adults 18 years and older in a primary care setting. A multistage sampling technique was used. An original questionnaire was designed to accommodate local culture and vernacular but also included the 4-item CAGE, questionnaire.
    Results: A total of 865 participants were entered into the study. The estimated prevalence of alcohol consumption was 60%, while the prevalence of lifetime abstainers was 6.5 one of the lowest in the hemisphere. Further, 381 (73%) participants were unaware that alcohol was a risk factor for breast cancer, the leading cause of cancer among women in Trinidad. A small percentage (51, 9.8%) of women consumed alcohol during pregnancy. Using the CAGE questionnaire 142 (16.4%) participants was found to be CAGE positive.
    Conclusion: The estimated prevalence of alcohol consumption in Trinidad is 60%, of which approximately 18% met the criteria for hazardous drinking. At risk drinking was more prevalent in males than females, there was no significant ethnic disparity, and however the proportion of women drinking alcohol has doubled.
    Case Report
    Valeriano Raul Garcia Aurrecoechea*, Jose Luis Alba Robles, Solveig Erendira Rodriguez Kuri, Carmen Fernandez Caceres
    This article presents the first Mexican study about the relationship between cocaine/crack use disorder and antisocial behavior, based on the comparison of cocaine/crack patients and non stimulant drug patients (attended for alcohol, cannabis, heroine or inhalant use) on criminal behavior history and on the means of scales of problematic and antisocial behaviors in drug users in treatment. These scales evaluate aggression, robberies and other common antisocial and criminal behaviors in individuals with substance use disorder in patients treated at Juvenile Integration Centers, an institution that has treatment centers for drug users, which is part of the Ministry of Health of Mexico and distributed by all the states that make up the country. Statistical comparasions were made, with chi-square test and Student t-test. The results show more problematic behaviors in the cocaine/crack patients, by means of more impulsive behavior, and direct and indirect violence than the non stimulant drug patients. Moreover the cocaine/crack group showed a transgression history with more crimes against the state, of falsehood and against freedom and psychosexual development.
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