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  • ISSN: 2373-9363
    Volume 5, Issue 3
    Research Article
    Loredana Marchica*, Yaxi Zhao, and Jeffrey Derevensky
    Most individuals have daily, if not constant access to the internet. The increased accessibility of internet use has coincided with an increased availability and social acceptance of gambling behaviours. This trend increases the possibility that gamblers who use the internet as a means to gamble will acquire information on problem gambling online as well. Knowledge about the content and quality of these gambling-related sites will benefit gambling prevention and intervention practices. Thus, the current study aimed to inspect the information on gambling found online using specific gambling search terms. Google and Bing AdWords were used in order to generate the 8 most frequent search terms receiving at least 1,000 global monthly searches. The dataset included the first page of Google search results among five English-speaking countries (Canada, New Zealand, U.K., Australia and the U.S) having the highest reported gambling losses per capita. Descriptive analyses revealed that most gambling-related information online pertained to health-information and help-programs. Further, Health on the Net criteria, a rating scale assessing reliability of health information was used to assess the sites’ accuracy. Overall, a mean score of 3.53 out of 8.0was found. Finally, differences by country analyses demonstrated that New Zealand had significantly more help-related program sites than the United Kingdom and the United States. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the nature of gambling-related material online and may impact possible future production of e-health sources of information.
    Mini Review
    LaVelle Hendricks* and LaShondra Manning
    Powdered alcohol or "palcohol" was originated in the 1970s, but resurfaced in 2007 in the Netherlands and again in the United States in 2014. The concept for powdered alcohol is that it can be sold cheaply in small packets and mixed with water. Once the powdered alcohol and water are mixed, the beverage fizzes and mimics flavors such as margarita, lemon drop, mojito and cosmopolitan, as well as maintain the effects of regular alcohol. Criticisms of palcohol is that it can be easily snorted since it is already in powdered form and that it can be easily concealed in venues that prohibit alcohol like schools. Furthermore, it has also been speculated that people’s drinks could be more easily spiked and cause controversy like the date rape drug. The makers of palcohol dispute these claims and are waiting for government approval to sell the product. In the meantime, cognitive behavioral therapy is recommended to address the misuse and abuse of alcohol, be it in a liquid or a powdered form.
    Perspective
    Ralph J. DiClemente*and Nihari Patel
    The World Health Organization (WHO) recently estimated that approximately 2.3 million individuals worldwide are co-infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) [1]. HIV-infected individuals were, on average, 6 times more likely than HIV-negative individuals to be infected with HCV [1].
    Review Article
    Liranso G. Selamu* and Yosph Dagne M
    Mental and substance use disorders are the leading cause of disability and associated burden globally and in Sub-Saharan Africa. Major mental disorder has the largest burden, yet the very limited mental health treatments in Sub-Saharan Africa are frequently restricted to tertiary psychiatric facilities treating those with drug addicted. This journal reviews focused on the current literature on substance use disorder and mental treatment in sub Saharan countries specifically Ethiopia, Somalia, Kenya, Djibouti, and Sudan contexts. The journal review was based on the recent literature from reliable sources like PubMed, WHO, PsycINFO, and Global Health using search terms such as substance abuse treatment in sub Saharan countries. Journals published before 2000 were excluded. Twenty one relevant reviews were identified and reviewed for background information and to illustrate mental and drug use disorders. Comprehensive overviews of drug disorder and mental treatment models were markedly absent from the recent literature. Thus, this review journal aimed at to find out the realistic treatment of drug disorder and mental treatment in sub Saharan countries, and suggested the further research would conduct well to blend inquiry with further interventions.
    Short Notes
    LaVelle Hendricks*, Jason L Daugherty and Quynh Dang
    Initially created in the 1950’s as an anesthetic, 1-phenylcyclohexylpiperidine or PCP as it commonly called, has become a problem for the youth of today. This highly volatile chemical is synthesized in underground laboratories throughout the United States. PCP comes in a variety of forms. From capsules, to vials of clear odorless liquids and even powders it is difficult to spot and often confused with other drugs. It can be smoked, injected, snorted, and absorbed though the skin or even dropped into ones eye. Time of onset of symptoms is directly related to the method of administration. Although its use is widespread it is often overlooked and users under the influence of PCP are mistakenly thought to be utilizing different drugs. In this paper I intend to explore in depth what exactly PCP is and how its use can affect those who choose to partake of it. I will also explore the signs and symptoms of those under its influence, and possible treatment.
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