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  • ISSN: 2373-9363
    Volume 6, Issue 2
    Review Article
    Donald E. Nowak Jr*
    This review looks at research from 1991 to the present in regard to college student-athlete gambling addiction and disorder issues with an emphasis on prevalence rates, motivations, and comorbid disorders as well as NCAA national studies and derivative research. Subsets of the college student-athlete population, namely, minority athletes are also examined. PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, ERIC, SPORTDiscus, MEDLINE, and Dissertation Abstracts International (ProQuest) were searched for possible contributions to this review. Student-athletes and male student-athletes in particular, are vulnerable to disordered gambling problems, which, if not addressed by university administration and athletic departments, can result in severe negative consequences for the student-athlete. The research shows, for the most part, that student-athletes have a higher rate of pathological gambling than non-athletes, though the rate of “normal” gambling behavior is about the same. Additionally, it appears that athletes in certain high profile team sports (football, basketball, etc.) as well as athletes belonging to a minority group are more likely to report problems with gambling than their counterparts. Recommendations for working with student-athletes with a gambling disorder as well as directions for future research in this burgeoning area are offered, including screening for the disorder by mental health professionals and counselors, as well as training for coaches and financial aid personnel.
    Yahya Muhammed Bah*
    In the Gambia like all nations, drug abuse is seen as a social and health problem that has many serious implications for the physical, social, psychological and intellectual development of the victims more especially, the children. Therefore, it continues to be a concern to families, community leaders, educators, social workers, health care professionals, academics, government and its development partners. Though there some studies on drug abuse, there is none on children and drug abuse focusing on the street children the most vulnerable category. Street children are hypothesized to be more at risk of any epidemic including drug abuse. This study sought to determine the risk and prevalence of drug abuse among street children focusing on those in the car parks. The research was focused on six critical areas: level of knowledge of drug abuse, perception towards it, level of knowledge of the causes of it in the community and among street children, level of knowledge of negative impacts of it, level of knowledge of the preventive methods; and level of knowledge of the support services and treatments needed by victims. A structured questionnaire was used to collect the data from thirty five participants (i.e. one driver and six casual apprentices from each of the five car parks) were interviewed. The data was presented and analysed using tables and percentage. The findings revealed among other things, that there is high level of awareness of drug abuse but the feelings towards it is mixed. Like other children, street children are abusing drugs mainly due to peer influence with the ultimate objective of getting high to relief stress, group recognition, trusted by peers, etc. Similarly, participants are highly aware of the negative impacts encompassing fighting, stealing, mental illness, etc. To finance the behaviour, victims are engaged in all types of dangerous antisocial behavior including romantic ones exposing them to a range of diseases including STIs and HIV/AIDS. Marijuana is the most commonly abused drug. Though in the minority, some have started experimenting cocaine/coke, hashish; and heroin. While participants have good knowledge of the critical methods to fight drug abuse, the support services needed by victims, victims are mostly reluctant to seek the services not only because they are hard to find but fear societal stigmatization, exclusion and discrimination and professionals’ maltreatments.
    Research Article
    Michael J. Mello*, Julie R. Bromberg, Hale Wills, Barbara A. Gaines, Garry Lapidus, Megan L. Ranney, Anthony Spirito, Christina Parnagian, and Janette Baird
    Introduction: Alcohol screening, brief intervention and referral to treatment is mandated within the level 1 pediatric trauma center. However, data on the prevalence of alcohol and drug use among admitted pediatric trauma patients is limited. Our study objective was to describe substance use and related negative consequences in admitted adolescent trauma patients across three pediatric level 1 trauma centers.
    Methods: This surveillance study was nested within a study on electronically delivered parenting skills education to parents of admitted adolescents (12-17 years) screening positive for alcohol or drug use. Enrolled adolescents completed baseline assessments to examine demographics, substance use and related negative consequences. Thirty-seven parent-adolescent dyads enrolled in the intervention study.
    Results: Participants were eligible if they received a positive CRAFFT score or a positive biological screen for alcohol or drug use at time of the hospital admission. Of those enrolled into the study, 9 (24%) reported no substance use in the prior 12 months in our assessment battery. Of the remaining 28 patients, 6 (16%) reported using only alcohol, 10 (27%) only marijuana, 9 (24%) both alcohol and marijuana, and 3 (8%) alcohol and marijuana with other drugs in the past 12 months. Negative consequences reported varied between those who reported alcohol use only and those who reported marijuana use only with physical consequences of use most often being reported by those using alcohol (hangover, vomiting), and psychosocial consequences (getting into trouble with parents, doing something later regret) by those who used only marijuana.
    Conclusion: These findings support the use of laboratory screening and screening questionnaires for all adolescent trauma admissions to capture a complete picture of alcohol and drug use.
    Short Communication
    Jennifer C. Elliott*, Noga Shalev, Deborah S. Hasin
    Aims: Given the efficacy of new medications for Hepatitis C virus (HCV), we aimed to determine whether drinking relates to HCV treatment access among the high-risk group of individuals with HIV/HCV co-infection.
    Methods: We sampled 210 patients in a sexual health clinic; of these, 39 reported HIV/HCV co-infection (79.49% male; 56.41% Black). Patients completed a self-report survey on drinking and treatment history.
    Results: Those drinking despite health problems reported less HCV treatment (p=0.035). Drinking despite health problems did not relate to whether HCV treatment was recommended by providers, and binge drinking did not relate to either HCV outcome. Drinking was unrelated to HIV treatment.
    Conclusions: HIV/HCV co-infected individuals drinking despite health problems are in urgent need of attention, to reduce drinking and increase engagement in treatment. Drinking despite health problems may serve as an effective screening question to identify HIV/HCV co-infected drinkers who are most at risk of being untreated.
    Abhinav Gupta*, Anil Kumar Gupta, and Mrinalini Darswal
    Consequent upon orders of Juvenile Justice Committee of Delhi High Court, Health Department of Delhi Government has taken some novel initiates to build up capacity of public health facilities for management of children & adolescents suffering from Drug/substance abuse. A total number of 60 beds have been earmarked in seven Delhi Government hospitals/institutions. A process to recruit appropriately trained staff has been undertaken to operationlize the centres. In the last 6 months, 65 Medical Officers and 101 Nursing Officers have been imparted 2 days hands-on-training on prevention & management of substance abuse in children and adolescents. During 1st April, 2016 to 31st Dec, 2017, 401children & adolescents in the age group 5-18 years (average 14.5 years) with different types of substance abuse have been admitted at the juvenile drug treatment facilities established. Most of the cases were brought to drug treatment centers by an NGO Society for Promotion of Youth & Masses (SPYM). Poly-substance abuse (53.9%) was noted as most common form of substance abuse followed by dependence on inhalants (29.7%), tobacco (10.9%) and cannabis (5.2%). Amongst children with Polysubstance abuse most of children were addicted to tobacco & or inhalant & or cannabis & or opioid & or alcohol in different combinations. Management of the cases included pharmacological and non pharmacological management. Follow up of cases was done at level of referring institutions; however, the same need to be strengthened. Steps have also been taken to limit the access of inhalants to vulnerable children & adolescents by issuing a Gazette Notification on 28st July 2017. District Task Force Committees have been constituted under Deputy Commissioner (Revenue) & Deputy Commissioner (Police) for execution and monitoring of the said Gazette Notification of Delhi Government. The efforts may go a long way in addressing the menace of drug/substance abuse in children & adolescents in Delhi.
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