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  • ISSN: 2378-9344
    Early Online
    Volume 7, Issue 1
    Preclinical Research
    Jing Liu, Hisashi Sawada, Deborah A. Howatt, Jessica J. Moorleghen, Olga Vsevolozhskaya, Alan Daugherty, and Hong S. Lu*
    Objective: This study determined whether hypercholesterolemia would contribute to both the initiation and progression of angiotensin (Ang)II-induced abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) in mice.
    Methods and Results: To determine whether hypercholesterolemia accelerates the initiation of AAAs, male low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor -/- mice were either fed one week of Western diet prior to starting AngII infusion or initiated Western diet one week after starting AngII infusion. During the first week of AngII infusion, mice fed normal diet had less luminal expansion of the suprarenal aorta compared to those initiated Western diet after the first week of AngII infusion. The two groups achieved comparable luminal dilation on week 2 through week 6 of AngII infusion as monitored by ultrasound. To determine whether hypercholesterolemia contributed to the progression of established AAAs, male LDL receptor -/- mice were fed Western diet and infused with AngII for 4 weeks. Mice with established AAAs were then stratified into two groups based on luminal diameters measured by ultrasound. While AngII infusion was continued for another 8 weeks in both groups, mice in one group were continuously fed Western diet, but diet in the other group was switched to normal laboratory diet. In the latter group, plasma cholesterol concentrations were reduced rapidly to approximately 500 mg/dl within one week after the diet was switched from Western diet to normal laboratory diet. Luminal expansion progressed constantly in mice continuously fed Western diet, whereas no continuous expansion was detected in mice that were switched to normal laboratory diet.
    Conclusion: Hypercholesterolemia accelerates both the initiation of AAAs and progression of established AAAs in AngII-infused male LDL receptor -/- mice.
    Clinical Relevance: Hypercholesterolemia is modestly associated with AAAs in observational or retrospective clinical studies. It is not feasible to study whether hypercholesterolemia contributes to the initiation of AAAs or progression of established AAAs in human. This study using AngII-induced AAA mouse model provides solid evidence that hypercholesterolemia contributes to both the initiation and progression of AAAs, supporting that statin therapy at any stage of AAA development may be beneficial to hypercholesterolemic patients with AAAs.
    Quiz-Answer
    Yash Javeri*, Vitrag Shah and Sanjay Juneja
    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a major national health problem, with an overall age- and sex-adjusted incidence of more than ...... per 1,000 annually.
    Research Article
    Nobuo Tomizawa*
    Objectives: To estimate the flow reduction of the aorta when abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is present and to provide an appropriate scan time for CT angiography of the aorta using a small amount of contrast medium when AAA is present.
    Methods: We performed an in vitro study by calculating the aortic flow using commercially available computed fluid dynamics software. We evaluated the following AAA models: aneurysm diameter, 30 to 60 mm; aneurysm length, 30 to 80 mm; inlet flow velocity, 30 to 60 mm/s. We defined ?transit time as the difference in transit time of the aorta with and without AAA.
    Results: Mean aortic flow decreased with increasing aneurysm size and length. The increase in ?transit time was longer in patients with slow aortic flow than fast aortic flow. Quadratic relationship was present between aneurysm diameter and ?transit time and the relationship was very good with R2 values ranging between 0.9972 to 0.9991. The relationship was also good between ?transit time and aneurysm length with R2 values ranging between 0.9986 to 1. ?Transit time was over 2 s especially when the aneurysm length was longer than 70 mm even when the inlet flow velocity was fast.
    Conclusion: Aortic flow would decrease in patients with AAA. The delay in contrast medium arrival increases with aneurysm size and length. Scan time for CT angiography of the aorta should be tailored by AAA size when the contrast medium injection time is short.
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