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  • ISSN: 2378-9344
    Volume 8, Issue 1
    Mini Review
    Pierre A Guertin*
    Blood sugar had been proposed a long time ago to promote cancer. Since then, several studies were undertaken to either disprove or confirm that potential causal relationship. Among all forms of sugars - e.g., glucose, carbohydrates, fructose, maltose -, none was shown to increase directly or specifically the risks of cancer. Moreover, a reduction of glucose intake failed to prevent or reduce tumor cell activity. This said, all cells including cancer cells need sugar or more specifically glucose as fuel for their intrinsic cellular metabolism. One thing is clear about sugar or glucose - eating a lot of it generally leads to overstimulation of insulin, insulin growth factor (IGF), and overweight problems. In other words, as of today, scientists have failed to confirm a direct link between sugar and cancer, although an indirect link was found between cancer and all sources of energy such as lipids, proteins, alcohol, and sugar or glucose -i.e., when steadily taken in excess, all forms of energy lead generally to insulin problems, obesity, and type II diabetes which are, in turn, conditions well-known to enhance the risks of several types of cancer.
    Case Report
    Abishek Tumma* and Richard Wong
    Fibromuscular Dysplasia (FMD) is uncommon and can often be misdiagnosed for vasculitis. We present 7 FMD patients who presented to our centre between 2016-2018. The mean age was 49-years and the majority were female but were atypical for FMD given that they did not smoke nor did they have hypertension. Vasculitis was the initial diagnosis in 75% of non-cardiac related cases, and was diagnosed later on average 5.3months after initial symptom-onset compared with 8.6days where vasculitis was not considered. This article emphasises the need to consider FMD as a potential diagnosis particularly in patients suspected of having medium or large vessel vasculitis.
    Kunwar P Bhatnagar* and Timothy D Smith
    This case report describes the observation of a unilaterally present anomalous levator claviculae muscle in a 66 -year-old human male. The observations were made during routine laboratory dissections. In our 80-some years of cumulative human dissection education prior to this detection, this was the first observation (with about 4550 cadavers dissected yearly) of this muscle. The levator claviculae muscle was observed with intact nerve supply from the ventral ramus of C3, indicating its functional status.
    The muscle was lambda (λ)-shaped with its stem oriented cranially, attaching to the fascia of the longus capitis muscle at the level of the transverse process of the fourth cervical vertebra. More inferiorly, the stem splits into a pars medialis and pars lateralis each with fascial attachments to the clavicle within the middle third of the bone. Both parts had fascial attachments to the clavicle within the middle third of the bone, and the lateral part passed medial to the external jugular vein. Elsewhere in the neck, the inferior belly of the omohyoideus muscle also split into medial and lateral heads, attaching separately to the scapula. Knowledge of infrequent anatomical anomalies is helpful in isolating pathologies (e.g., cervical cancers) from other infrequent, but non-pathological structures that may be detected in routine screenings. Lastly, in a review of comparative anatomical findings, we assert the levator claviculae muscle is a partial homologue of the omocervicalis of other mammals.
    Research Article
    Tey Kai Yuan, Neo Yu Shan, Sarah Tan Yingli and Stuart Robert Walker*
    Background: Patients with peripheral arterial disease may be asymptomatic or present with symptoms ranging from intermittent claudication to critical leg ischaemia, which may lead to lower limb amputation. This study aims to investigate the relationship between revascularization procedures and amputations rates in Australia.
    Methods: This was a retrospective observational study. Medicare claims via procedure item numbers listed in the Medical Benefits Schedule and available on the Medicare Statistic website were accessed. Population data were extracted from the Australian Bureau of Statistics’ database. Data were expressed in per 100 000 population to better reflect the change in population over time, i.e. population based. Regression analysis was used to analyse the trend and correlate variables.
    Results: From 2007 to 2017, across all states, there was a 36.98% decline in below knee amputations (p<0.05), 39.52% decline in above-knee amputations (p<0.05) and a 43.49% rise in revascularization procedures (p<0.05).
    Conclusion: The increase in revascularisation procedures has been matched by a reduction in major lower limb amputations in Australia. While it is debatable which revascularization procedures are most effective in preventing amputations, the importance of such preventative measures has likely been underestimated.
    Review Article
    Weiming Xu*
    Colchicine is a well-known ancient remedy to treat gouty and arthritis, more recently, to the Mediterranean fever. It also has a good efficacy in the treatment of some cardiovascular disease conditions. The role of colchicine in the treatment of the ongoing pandemic COVID-19 has been suggested to control of the COVID-19-induced cytokine storm. Recently, in several clinical trials, colchicine has been shown to reduce the length of the need for supplemental oxygen and the length of hospitalization and beneficial to the COVID-19 patients before hospitalization. It has been known that some health conditions with increased cholesterol level such as fat, obesity and diabetes making patients more vulnerable to death in the SARS-Cov-2-virus attack. We have discussed the possible mechanisms of colchicine in virus-induced TNF-a-mediated cytokine storm in crosstalk with the cholesterol regulation pathway.
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