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  • ISSN: 2378-931X
    Current Issue
    Volume 5, Issue 6
    Review Article
    Saleh MA*, Ali M El Doweriej, Raed Hussein El Braheem, Zaki Al Shutayb, Ibrahim A. Qassim, Ali ElSahaf, Ahmed Saad El Amin, Ahmed El Hady, Alaa EA Khattab, Nasreldin B Omer, and AA Mohammed
    This study aims to investigate clinical, pathological and histopathological findings of clinically infected sheep by Coenurus Cerebralis in Turaba governorate, Taif province, Saudi Arabia.
    The herd shuttles between pastures for grazing accompanied by dogs for guardianship (Dog, Fox and Wolf may be considered a source of infection).
    Clinical examination of the sheep revealed that403 from 1542 Harri sheep (majority were female) aged from 1 to 4 years were clinically suffering from nervous symptoms as incoordination, irregular gait, failure to hold the head straight, leftward head tilt and circling around himself.
    The morbidity rates between Harri Sheep were 0.5%, 1.49%, 4.86% 19.3% and 26.1% while mortality rates were 0.32%, 1.04%, 058%, 2.79 % and 4.7 % respectively for male less than or equal one-year-old, male over one-year-old, female less than or equal one- year-old, female over one-year- old and sum of sheep in herd (Sum of male and female in Sheep Herd).
    Post-mortem investigation of diseased animals showed that varying cerebral tissue was thin, atrophied and congested. It tore easily by hand and included with a multiple of cysts (C. cerebralis).
    Cysts were evacuated spontaneously and observed that occupied by white clusters attached to the internal layer of the cyst over the caudal portion of the cerebellum within the cranium. The cyst caused compression over the ventral portion of the left cerebral hemisphere so nervous manifestations may by diagnosed. The cyst was diagnosed as C. Cerebralis
    This report describes a rare case of coenuruses cystin brain and spinal cord of sheep and the associated pathognomonic lesions.
    In conclusion, we found it beneficial to present the clinical and pathological findings of Harri Sheep manifested with C. cerebralis which is known to be a serious clinical entity among sheep in Taif province, Saudi Arabia.
    Cathleen A. Mochal-King*, Jacquelyn E. Bowser, Alison L, Andrew K. Claude, Caitlin J Wenzel, Megan L. Robbins, Cyprianna E. Swiderski
    Case description: Hemothorax is rare in horses, most commonly arising from thoracic trauma. Hemothorax has also been reported to be a complication of intrathoracic surgery. This report documents the management of 3 episodes of hemothorax that occurred following thoracic surgery.
    Clinical findings: Two horses developed hemothorax following thoracic surgery. Hemothorax occurred twice in one horse with equine pasture asthma (aka summer pasture-associated recurrent airway obstruction, SPARAO) following two identical surgical procedures performed 8 months apart. The second horse, a clinically normal control, also underwent two surgical procedures, and developed hemothorax following the second surgery. Tachypnea was the initial clinical sign of pleural effusion in both horses and was identified within 8 hours of surgery. Bilateral pleural effusion indicative of hemorrhage was confirmed using thoracic ultrasound in all three instances.
    Treatment and outcome: All horses were supplemented with oxygen using nasal insufflation. Antimicrobial therapy was initiated and maintained for 14-16 days. Attempts to drain or remove the hemorrhage were not performed. Hemothorax resolved within 14-16 days in all instances and horses were returned to pasture turnout by day 16 without incident. Three to 11 months following ultrasonographic resolution of the effusion, no evidence of complication was identified in either horse.
    Clinical relevance: Hemothorax is a complication of thoracic surgery in horses which may be effectively managed conservatively. Clinical improvement occurred rapidly with resolution of effusion and return to normal function within 14-16 days of the inciting event in horses described in this report.
    Short Communication
    Rodriguez Y, Echeverria E, Rodriguez J, ValdsY, Rodriguez I, and Obregon AM*
    Identification of Leptospira serovars is necessary for epidemiological surveillance. In Cuba, few papers have been published on this topic. However, Pomona, Canicola, Icterohaemorrhagiae and Ballumsero groups have been found in patients with leptospirosis. The goal of this research is to apply the hybridoma antibodies technique to typing Leptospira serovars from human cases living in the Eastern region of Cuba, during 2007 to 2012. Arborea, Canicola, Pomona, Icterohaemorrhagiae serovars were the most prevalent encountered in this investigation. The distribution of Leptospira serovars in two Cuban provinces from the Eastern region (2007-2012)is quite similar to other studies developed before in this country.
    Obregon Fuentes AM*, Vasquez V, Fernandez C, Rodriguez Y, and Rodriguez J
    Introduction: Identification of pathogenic Leptospira is important for the formulation of epidemiological studies, including the design of new vaccines, and the validation of rapid diagnostic tools. In Cuba there are few studies of typing leptospireserovars circulating in different geographical region through the years.
    Objective: To contribute to the knowledge of the leptospira serovarscirculating in Cuba using biochemical, serological and molecular tests.
    Materials and methods: Seventeen autochthonous isolates of leptospirosis cases from two cuban'sprovinces (2008-2009) were studied using for the identification, the biochemical tests of 8-azoguanine resistance, the low temperature growthing (13C) and the sensitivity tothe 1% sodium bicarbonate. MAT technique using polyclonal and monoclonal sera and PCR were also used.
    Results: Ten (10/17) isolates were typed by MAT with pyloclonal sera as Pomona (4), Canicola (4), andIcterohaemorrhagiae (2) serogroups. Belong these serogroups, Pomona (1),Tropica (1), Proechimys (2), Canicola (4), and Icterohaemorrhagiae (2) serovars were identified using MAT with mAbs. All 10 autochthonous isolates amplified DNA's fragments by PCR test. Seven (7/17) isolates were not typed by MAT, however all them were identifiedbiochemically and molecularly as pathogenic strains.
    Conclusions: The distribution of leptospire serovars from 2008 to 2009 in Cuba, had been similar behavior with respect to previous periods, which suggests maintaining laboratory surveillance of leptospirosis.
    Editorial
    ZuhairBani Ismail*, Ehab Abu Basha, Farah Al-Nabulsi
    Mycotoxins are toxic substances that are produced by several species of fungi when environmental conditions are favorable. Mycotoxins are associated with several ill health syndromes in both animals and humans. Prevention and control are difficult, but represent an indication of best management practices.
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