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  • ISSN: 2378-931X
    Early Online
    Volume 5, Issue 9
    Research Article
    Elliot Ramos Rivera*, Christian C. Hofer, and David P. Fetterer
    Downdraft tables protect personnel against airborne hazardous materials. One concern during manipulations on a downdraft table is an animals temperature reduction and the increased risk of hypothermia, because of the high airflow resulting from the negative pressure across the work surface. Hypothermia causes bradycardia, prolonged recovery, impaired coagulation, and affects immune defense mechanisms. We evaluated the effect of a downdraft table on the rectal temperature of anesthetized nonhuman primates. Ten anesthetized cynomolgus and ten rhesus macaques, (4 to 10 y; 11 males and 9 females), were assigned to a standard treatment cart or a downdraft table, allowing a washout period of 5 to 7 days between events. Rectal temperatures were recorded every 5 minutes for 30 minutes. Among rhesus macaques, significant effects of the downdraft table on rectal temperature were observed at 5, 10, and 25 minutes (P=0.0452, P=0.0440, and P=0.0440, respectively), with downdraft table animals displaying mean rectal temperatures between 0.63 F and 0.90 F lower than the standard treatment cart. No association between table type and rectal temperature was observed in cynomolgus macaques, althougha significant number with low rectal temperatures requiring thermal support was observed. In conclusion, thermal support for these animals during extended sedation should be provided, regardless of tabletype. Earlier thermal support during downdraft table operations, could prevent additional heat loss leading to cold stress and hypothermia. Thermal support for ananesthetized nonhuman primate, especially during downdraft table operations, is arefinement that would improve animal welfare, research outcomes, and reproducibility in animal studies.
    Jarso D, Berhanu S, and Wubishet Z
    Objective: The objective of present study was to estimate sero-prevalence of toxoplasmosis and identify associated risk factors for the occurrence of the disease among Borana breed cattle in three selected districts of Borana zone of Oromia Regional state, southern Ethiopia.
    Methods: A cross sectional (observational) study design was conducted from December, 2017 to April, 2018 to estimate the overall sero-prevalence of cattle toxoplasmosis in three selected districts of Borana zone. A totally 391 borana breed cattle from three selected districts (belonging to 50 herds) were tested for antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii by using Latex Agglutination Test (LAT). A questionnaire survey was made to assess associated risk factors and knowledge of pastoralists about toxoplasmosis.
    Result: The overall sero-prevalence was 14.8% at animal level and 68% at herd-level. There was statistically significant variation (P < 0.05,) in T.gondii seroprevalence among the three districts. The slightly highest seroprevalence was recorded in Gomole district (100 %) followed by Yabello (83.3 %) and Elwaye (35%) districts at herd level and in Gomole (19.5%), followed by Yabello (16.9%) and Elwaye (8.7%) districts at animal level. There was significant association between herd-level seroprevalence of T. gondii infection and herd size, presence of domestic cats and hygiene at camp (P<0.05). About 66% of interviewed Pastoralists had cats in their home and almost all fed household leftovers, raw offal and were allowed to roam in the neighbor hoods fed on rodents and birds. Most (92%) interviewees were uneducated and all had no knowledge of toxoplasmosis.
    Conclusion: Study districts, size of the herd, presence or vicinity of domestic cats and hygienic at camp are the main risk factors. The sero-prevalence of toxoplasmosis in studied districts of the Zone needs high attention in implementing the disease control and prevention strategies.
    Review Article
    Wubishet Zewdie*
    A large number of published and unpublished research studies on Bovine, small ruminant and human Brucellosis from 20002017 were reviewed. Researches outside of Ethiopia also included to incorporate species of Brucella causing of diseases in Bovine, small ruminant and human. Risks associated with a disease also reviewed. Finally, status of the diseases in Ethiopia explained and future action recommended.
    Original Article
    Mulatu Mitiku*
    The present study was conducted in and around Durame Town from October 2017 to June 2018 with the objective of estimating the prevalence of reproductive health problems in dairy cattle. Cross-sectional study design was carried out to collect data from a total of 401 dairy cows which were selected by using systematic random sampling techniques. The overall prevalence of clinically observed major reproductive health problems was 61.35%. Body condition score of animals, management system, and age of animal showed statistically significant association with the occurrence of overall reproductive health problems (P< 0.05). The common specific reproductive health problems occurred at the study area were anoestrus (34.66%), repeat breeding syndrome (19.20%), dystocia (8.48%), retained fetal membrane (10.47%), metritis complex (4.24%), abortion (3.49%), uterine prolapse (2.49%) and stillbirth (1%). The study findings also revealed that the status of brucellosis among dairy cows of the study areas was very low and occurred with prevalence of 1.25% (0.82 -3.07%) at individual level. Extensive management system, use of communal water points and age of animal were found to be the risk factors for Brucella occurrence (P< 0.05). Other factors such as breed and breeding methods did not show significant association with Brucella seropositivity (P>0.05). Further statistical analysis made to know status of association between Brucella seropositivity and occurrence of reproductive health problems, showed that there was no statistically significant association among brucellosis and occurrence of reproductive health problems. This could be attributable to low level of Brucella prevalence and this may suggest that some other etiological agents are responsible as precipitating the reproductive disorders rather than brucellosis.
    Mohamed Wefky El-Sherif*
    Twenty adult male Egyptian local breed client owned cats were divided into two equal groups and anesthetized using two different Ketamine based protocols. The first group received a mixture of Xylazine and Ketamine (XK) in a single syringe administered intramuscular. The other group received Xylazine-Ketamine-Tramadol mixture (XKT) in the same syringe. Non-significant variations in physiological parameters, induction, anesthesia or recovery periods were detected. Post-operative sedation and analgesia significantly increased in the XKT group. Seizures like convulsions were noticed during induction and recovery in XKT group. Anesthesia and recovery periods were slightly prolonged in the same group than in XK group. In conclusion, addition of tramadol in a dose of 2mg/kg to Xylazine-Ketamine combination didnt depress the cardiopulmonary functions hence didnt require further addition of anticholinergic premedication, produced adequate sedation and post-operative analgesia and slightly prolong the anesthesia duration.
    Review Article
    Bin Zhao*, Kuiyun Huang, Xia Jiang, Jinming Cao
    The intensive use of poultry manure is a significant environmental risk to soil water. Manure composition emissions can be effected by soil water with the application of poultry manure.
    The vectors to represent the relationship between soil water characteristics and antibiotic were generated. A Semi-empirical Richards equation is employed to the biostatistical models of soil moisture while precise solutions of Richards equation obtained by using the (G'/G) - expansion method and the homogeneous balance method. Then the biostatistical models which involve several variables including soil moisture content, soil depth and timescales were assumed according to the exact solutions of Semi-empirical Richards equation. At least one antibiotic was detected in all the soil water and poultry manure samples.
    Results confirmed that the contamination of vegetables by fecal bacteria is mainly due to the use of poultry manure.
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