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  • ISSN: 2378-931X
    Early Online
    Volume 5, Issue 7
    Research Article
    Reggie Y.C. Lo* and Allison Williams
    A collection of non-haemolytic M. haemolytica mutants were generated by EMS (ethyl methanesulfonate) mutagenesis. Total proteins from these mutants were examined by Western immunoblot analysis using antibodies specific for the leukotoxin LktA. LktA was not detected in some of the mutants as expected; however, LktA was detected in several mutants in spite of a non-haemolytic phenotype. These mutants could have a defect in any one of the four genes, or elsewhere in the genome suggesting other factors may be required for fully functional leukotoxin production. The lktA gene from mutant 36 was isolated by PCR and sequenced. Mutant 36 was found to have a G-C to A-T substitution resulting in codon change from GAG to AAG and E470K amino acid substitution.
    Dereje Tulu* and Beksisa Urge
    Ectoparasitesare a serious pathogens sheep and goat industry that cause a significant negative impact in tanning industry and economic growth in Ethiopia. A cross sectional study was conducted in Yeki district, Southwestern Ethiopia to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of Ectoparasites in sheep and goats from December 2016 to December 2017. A total of 500 small ruminants (321 sheep and 179 goats) were randomly selected and examined for the presence of ectoparasites. The prevalence of Ectoparasites in sheep and goats was (76.6%) and (79.9%) respectively. The overall prevalence of ectoparasites was 77.8% (389/500) in the study areas. The infestation of ectoparasites was highest due to tick (37.8%) followed by fleas (34.4%) and lice (31.2%) with mixed infestation (23.8%) being the least in the area. Multivariable logistic regression analysis identified sex, age groups and body condition of sheep and goats as risk factors (P<0.05) for ectoparasites in the study area. However, there were no statistically significant differences observed between species and peasant associations in sheep and goats (P> 0.05). The study shows that ectoparasites are one of the constraints to sheep and goats production instudy area. Hence, there is a need to create awareness about impact of parasite on sheep and goats production, and appropriate control methods for ectoparasites should be designed and implemented.
    Isaia Symeonidou, Styliani Pappa, Andreas Kourelis, Antonia Anogeianaki, Maria Hatzistilianou, Ilias Frydas and Stavros Frydas
    Trichinellosis is a parasitic disease transmitted to humans mainly through pork consumption. To explore the mechanisms underlying NO regulation during T. spiralis infection a cDNA microarray analysis (114 genes] was performed. The NO pathway gene expression profiles were compared between 10, 20 and 39 days after T.spiralis experimental infection of BALB/c mice. Out of 114 genes, 18 (15,8%] genes were present in non-infected and post-infected mice. The expression of Ilk and Mt2 genes was significantly up regulated 10 days post-infection, while the expression of Mt2 gene was significantly up regulated 20 days post-infection. Furthermore, the expression of Fos, Fth1, IL-1b and Nfkbia genes was significantly down regulated 10 days post-infection, while the expression of Cxcl2 gene was significantly down regulated 10 and 20 days post-infection. The present study lists the candidate genes of the NO signaling pathway that were commonly and differentially expressed between different time points of T. spiralis infection and sheds light to the complex host parasite interplay.
    Daniel Herrera-Rodrguez, Margarita Gonzlez-Martn, and Mara Teresa Tejedor-Junco*
    Staphylococcus aureus is a coccus housed in healthy people but also implicated in fatal infections. The emergence of multi-resistant strains, like MRSA, lead to a highly specific antibiotic treatment and produce prominent mortality rates, in animals and mankind. Veterinarians, health workers, and people who have continued contact with animals suffer greater risks because of the interspecies transmission of the bacteria.
    In this study, the significance of veterinary students as S. aureus carriers was evaluated, along with its prevalence, the Erythromycin, Enrofloxacin, Doxycycline, Gentamicin and Amoxicillin-Clavulanic Acid resistance featured, and its molecular basis. Additionally, some pathogenicity factors were evaluated.
    A 44% of S. aureus prevalence was found. None of the factors collected showed a statistical correlation with the presence or non-presence of S. aureus. Slime production was detected in 45.45% of isolates. Among the 22 S. aureus isolates, 10 (45.45%) showed resistance or an intermedius result to one (36.36%), two (4.54%) or three (4.54%) antibiotics. Erythromycin was, by difference, the antibiotic with the highest percentage of resistant or intermedius isolates (10/22, 45.45%), followed by Enrofloxacin (2/22, 9.09%) and Doxycycline (1/22, 4.54%). All the isolates were susceptible to Amoxicillin-Clavulanic Acid and Gentamicin.
    All the isolates harboured the 16st genes. Three isolates harboured Erythromycin resistance genes (13.63%), two of them ErmC, and one ErmB and ErmC. Three of the isolates harboured Tetracycline resistance genes, all of them TetK (13.63%). The pathogenicity factor PVL gene was detected in only one isolate (4.54%). The pathogenicity factor ACME gene was detected in four isolates (18.18%).
    Review Article
    Gutema Dinkisa*
    Cowdriosis also known as heartwater is an acute, often fatal, non-contagious and tick-borne disease of domestic and wild ruminants that is transmitted by Amblyomma ticks. It is an important cause of death in cattle, sheep, and goats in regions where tick vectors are present. In Africa, heartwater is a major obstacle to the introduction of highly productive animals into endemic areas. The distribution of the disease follows a presence of vector Amblyomma, among them Amblyomma variegatum is the most important species which is widely distributed in the sub-Saharan Africa including Ethiopia. Control of disease involves controlling tick vector, establishing endemic stability, performing immunization by infection and treatment, and preventing the disease by regular administration of prophylactic antibiotics. Most of these methods are subject to failure for various epidemiological reasons, and serious disease outbreaks can occur. Prophylaxis is effective, but very expensive, and the logistics are daunting when large herds of animals are involved. The development of a safe, cheap and effective vaccine directed against Ehrlichia ruminantium is the only way for controlling of heartwater. Generally, control of cowdriosis should consider using cost-effective, environmentally safe, sustainable and integrated control methods including establishment of endemic stability.
    Research Article
    Mahamadou Seyni Yansambou*, Ana Cristina Ferreira, Rianatou Bada-Alambedji, and Ana Botelho
    Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is a severe respiratory disease affecting cattle and buffalo caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subspmycoides. This disease is endemic in many countries of West Africa. This study reviews the distribution of CBPP outbreaks in West Africa from 2005 to 2017 and includes updated data from Niger where the disease is not well documented. In particular it provides a first account of the serological prevalence of CBPP in the region of Niamey in Niger. Sera from 987cattlefrom this region, comprising 912 belonging to 43 herds distributed in five communes and 75 sera from a notified CBPP outbreak, were screened for CBPP using competitive enzyme-linked immune-sorbent assay test (c-ELISA) and complement fixation test (CFT), and immune blotting (IBT) for confirmation of positives.
    The c-ELISA screening test indicated an estimated sero-prevalence in the Niamey region of 6.8% (62/912) at individual level, and 58.1% at herd level. The CFT appeared less sensitive detecting, only 1.6% (15/912) positive sera. Positive sera in both tests were further tested by IBT of which18.2% (14/77) were confirmed positive. Serological testing of the CBPP outbreak revealed73.3% (55/75) and 62.7% (47/75) positive in c-ELISA and CFT, respectively. The IBT confirmed the infection in 60.0% of the animals (45/75 cattle).
    In our study the c-ELISA proved to be more sensitive than CFT. However, c-ELISA detected mainly animals in chronic stages while CFT was able to detect recent infections. Ideally, c-ELISA and CFT should be used in parallel for screening CBPP but IBT, showing a higher specificity, should be used for confirmation of the infection.
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