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  • ISSN: 2378-931X
    Early Online
    Volume 5, Issue 3
    Short Communication
    Jessica Petrakovsky*, and Andrea Antonuci
    The concept of "One Health" starts from the awareness of the important possibilities that exist to protect public health through policies aimed at preventing and controlling the pathogens present in animal populations, acting at the interface between people, animals and the environment. Controlling zoonotic pathogens at their animal source is the most effective and economic way of protecting people. A "One Health" approach to leptospirosis control is essential because human infection almost invariably results either from direct animal exposure or from contaminated environments. Leptospirosis is a zoonosis of worldwide distribution. It is to be controlled because it is extremely difficult to eradicate. The prevention of animal leptospirosis directly impacts the incidence/prevalence of the human disease. The main control measures in veterinary medicine are vaccination, hygienic-sanitary measures and epidemiological surveillance. Veterinary Services, in both their public and private components, play an essential role in the development and implementation of policies to manage animal health risks. In conclusion, the control of zoonoses requires the joint work of several sectors, which involve human and animal public health, contemplating the care of the environment.
    Review Article
    Marina Pinheiro de Castro, Fabiano Borges Figueiredo, Ilana Teruskin Balassiano, Tatiane Mendes Varela, and Martha Maria Pereira*
    Leptospirosis is a worldwide zoonosis which has been recently recognized as a paradigm to the One Health approach due to the interface of human-animal-environment observed in the transmission cycles. A total of 40 opossums identified as Didelphis aurita were captured at the Campus FIOCRUZ within the Atlantic Forest, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil to evaluate their possible role as carriers of Leptospira spp. The 40 serum samples were submitted to the microagglutination test using a panel of 19 reference strains. Kidney fragments of 13 animals out of 40 were used to perform PCR and standard procedures to isolate leptospires in culture. The percentage of positive sera was 10% (4 out of 40). The PCR showed 4 positive kidney samples out of 13 (31%). Two strains were isolated in culture medium (15.4%). Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis of both isolates did not show a 100% match with any other sequence types deposited at the database used (http://pubmlst.org/leptospira/). The closest match of one isolate was with ST 177 represented by one strain of L. santarosai and the closest match of the other isolate was with STs 166 and 171 represented by strains of L. noguchii. It is the first report indicating the potential of opossums Didelphis aurita as a carrier of Leptospira spp.
    Joao Carlos Gomes Borges*, Danielle dos Santos Lima, Vitor Luz Carvalho, Miriam Marmontel, Rodrigo de Souza Amaral, Stella Maris Lazzarini, Victor Fernando Santana Lima, and Leucio Camara Alves
    Infections caused by Cryptosporidium and Giardia are among the main gastro enteric diseases affecting a large number of animals and humans. Oftentimes the disease is asymptomatic, which may render the diagnosis involving aquatic mammals difficult. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of an immunological technique with parasitological methods in the diagnosis of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in aquatic mammals. A total of 553 fecal samples and intestinal contents of mustelids, cetaceans and sirenians were submitted to laboratory processing. Cryptosporidium oocysts were identified with Kinyouns technique. Giardia cysts were identified using the centrifugation-flotation method. All samples underwent immunological tests through direct immunofluorescent antibody (DFA). The Kappa Index k was used to measure the agreement between techniques used for the detection of each parasite addressed in this study. Sensitivity, specificity, real prevalence, estimated prevalence, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, correct classification and incorrect classification were evaluated. Cryptosporidium were found in Pteronurabrasiliensis [10/24 (41.66%)], Trichechus inunguis [22/131 (16.79%), Lontra longicaudis [48/314 (15.28%)], Trichechus manatus [04/29 (13.79%)] and Sotalia guianensis [03/31 (9.67%)]. Giardia was identified in Kogia breviceps [01/01 (100%)], Pteronurabrasiliensis [07/24 (29.16%)], Kogia sima [01/04 (25%)], Trichechus manatus [04/29 (13.79%)], Sotalia guianensis [03/31 (9.67%)], Lontra longicaudis [30/314 (9.55%)] and Trichechusinunguis [05/131 (3.81%)]. The k value for the diagnosis of Cryptosporidium was 0.86; for Giardia cysts the k-value was 0.27. Therefore, the direct immunofluorescent technique demonstrated greater sensitivity both in the diagnosis of Cryptosporidium and Giardia where the combination of more than one laboratory technique is recommended.
    SP Angel, JP Amitha, VP Rashamol, GD Vandana, ST Savitha, A Afsal, M Bagath, G Krishnan, and V Sejian*
    Climate change has far-reaching consequences on several sectors of agriculture. Cattle production within animal agriculture is one of the most susceptible sectors for the devastating effects of climate change. Climate change associated heat stress negatively impacts cattle production both directly and indirectly. Heat stress reduces the feed intake which ultimately reduces the body weight, average daily gain and body condition scoring in cattle. Further, heat stress associated reduced feed intake also affects the milk production, meat production and reproduction in cattle. The high producing cattle are more vulnerable to heat stress than the low producing animals. Livestock exhibits a wide range of adaptive mechanisms to cope with environmental challenges. The classical adaptive mechanisms include morphological, behavioral, physiological, neuroendocrine, blood biochemical and cellular responses that act in coordination to promote the welfare and favour their survival in a specific environment. The detailed studies on these adaptive mechanisms have identified respiration rate, rectal temperature, Hb, PCV, cortisol, thyroid hormones to be reliable phenotypic markers and HSP70 as a confirmatory genotypic biomarker to assess the impact of heat stress in dairy cattle.
    Research Article
    Nihal Dogan*
    Background: Enteric protozoon infections in children are related to morbidity and mortality in the worldwide. Cryptosporidiumspp. is a zoonotic infection, now being recognized as a significant cause of diarrhea in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised hosts. Current modes of cryptosporidiosis diagnosis involve procedures which are costly and require both a well-equipped laboratory and technical expertise. Our aim was to evaluate the performances of the unidentified Cryptosporidium spp. presence during routine parasitological examinations and diagnostic methods.
    Methods: 1050 stool samples were collected in children who visited the University hospital with abdominal pain and diarrhea complaints, and additionally selected from seven different regions in primary school students. All stool specimens were examined macroscopically and microscopically by direct microscopic examination, and also were examined by Modified ZiehlNeelsen [mZN] staining method. Enzyme Immuno Assay [EIA] and Multiplex PCR methods could only be used in 450 stool specimens selected from samples showing suspect cyst structures and watery stool specimens on direct microscopic examinations [to the extent that is possible].
    Results: We detected, that of the 450 stool specimens examined by mZN stain with microscopic examination 39 [3.7%] are defined Cryptosporidium. Spp oocysts. Working on 450 stool samples with ELISA and multiplex PCR results respectively; in 28 [7.5%] by ELISA, and in 2 [0.4 %] by Multiplex PCR is defined positive Cryptosporidium spp ..Only 2 cases with positive results were detected with 3 methods used in the diagnosis.
    Conclusions: Microscopy is the reference standard method for routine diagnosis in stool intestinal parasites, but it requires experience. There are growing interests in the alternative methods due to the limitations of microscopic examination since it requires more time and experienced users. At least two methods must be used together for the diagnosis and attention should be paid to the selection and implementation of the methods.
    Review Article
    Tadashi Takino, Yuko Kato-Mori, Takenori Orihashi and Katsuro Hagiwara*
    Bovine rotavirus is the causative agent of diarrheal disease in calf, which is characterized by atony of the small intestinal wall and growth impairment, resultingin largeeconomic losses. The diarrheal infection also changes the commensal intestinal microbiome. The intestinal Microbiome balance in calves partially affects the innate immune system and plays an important role in prevention of pathogenic microbe infection. In this study, we investigated the changes in intestinal Microbiome composition of rotavirus-infected calves using metagenomics analysis. We collected feces samples from 16 calves at 14, 28, and 42 days after birth. Four of these calves developed diarrhea after 28 days. These calves and four other calves were diagnosed with rotavirus infection after 28 days. Fecal metagenomic analysis at the onset of the illness showed high Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio compared to the ratio in uninfected calves. The intestinal microbiomecomposition returned to normal levels 2 weeks after the onset of illness. The number of Prevotellaceae family members in Bacteroidetes increased in the healthy calves after 28 days; however, the rotavirus infection prevented similar increase in calves of the same age. These results indicate that rotavirus infection affects intestinal microbiome composition, which is important for the development of calf digestive organs.
    Research Article
    Adriano de Oliveira Torres Carrasco*, Guilherme Mulinari Cardoso, Jayme Augusto Peres, Karin Werther, Marcos Vinicius Almeida Morais, Mario Henrique Alves, Meire Christina Seki, Luciano Matsumiya Thomazelli, and Edison Luiz Durigon
    Newcastle disease (ND) is a viral disease that affects domestic and wild birds, highly contagious and can cause acute mortality in some species. Little is known about transmission and behaviour of the Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) in avian species, particularly in free-living species and with the exception of commercial birds, which is extremely important owing to the possible ease of contact between free-living species and commercial birds. The purpose of ND diagnosis is to guide the decisions to control the disease and thus prevent the spread of the disease. The aim of the present study was to evaluate immunological (immunohistochemical) and molecular techniques Real Time RT PCR (rRT-PCR) in the diagnosis of Newcastle disease in free-living bird tissue samples. A total of 150 birds belonging to14orders and 46 avian species were evaluated. Positive immunoblotting for NDV in at least one of the evaluated tissues was found in 43 (28.6%) of the 150 birds tested and 110 (71.4%) were negative by Immunohistochemistry (IHC) for NDV. Regarding the results of Real Time RT PCR (rRT-PCR), only one positive sample was recorded for the class 2 NDV from the trachea of ??a specimen of striped owl (Asioclamator). Therefore, it is essential to carry out epidemiological monitoring, with a constant characterization of circulating viral samples in free-living birds, especially in regions of high poultry production, to identify possible biosecurity measures that could prevent outbreaks in commercial poultry.
    Short Note
    Leticia Nishi*
    The number of studies and papers about the interaction dynamics between parasitism and pollution in environmental hasbeen increase. Among the aspects investigated we found the combined effects of pollution on the health of aquatic organisms, effects of pollution on the presence and distribution of parasites. Environmental pollution is a concern worldwide.
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