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  • ISSN: 2378-931X
    Early Online
    Volume 6, Issue 1
    Short Communication
    Kristina Mravcova, Gabriela Strkolcova*, Mria Goldova1, Rastislav Mucha
    Cryptosporidium spp. is opportunistic pathogen that infect a wide range of animals, including mammals and birds. In the present paper we focused our attention on faecal samples of calves younger than 35 days bred on a cattle farm in Slovakia. The total of collected faecal was 54 and applying the Ziehl-Neelsenacid resistant staining technique, we confirmed the presence of oocysts in 31.5% of smears. And for confirmationwas used molecular methods with identificationthe Cryptosporidiumparvum species and on the basis of the gp60 gene we confirmed two zoonotic subtypes, IIdA17G1 and IIaA17G1R1.
    Research Article
    Xunde Li, Wendi Jackson, Sharif Aly, Betsy M. Karle, Noelia Silva-del-Rio, Tran Nguyen, Chengling Xiao, Edward R. Atwill*
    Cryptosporidium spp. are major protozoal parasites infecting dairy cattle and cryptosporidiosis is a leading cause of morbidity in dairy calves. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and intensity of Cryptosporidium spp. infections associated with farm management risk factors and genotypes of Cryptosporidium spp. in preweaned dairy calves by conducting a cross-sectional study on eight dairies in the San Joaquin Valley of California. Fecal samples were collected from preweaned calves and evaluated for oocysts shedding load using immune fluorescent assay, and genotype using PCR and sequencing of a fragment of 18S rRNA gene. Information on management factors that contained categories of questions related to calf housing, feeding and management were also collected from the study farms. Statistical analysis of variables associated with Cryptosporidium spp. shedding was conducted using a multivariable logistic regression model.The overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in preweaned calves across all dairies was 56.0% [342/610]. Among 105 isolates of Cryptosporidium spp. successfully genotyped, 86.7% were determined to be C. parvum, 12.4% as C. bovis, and 0.9% as C. ryanae respectively. Calves shedding Cryptosporidium spp. Oocysts had 1.6 times the odds of being 16-31 days of age on the day of sampling compared to other age groups. A Cryptosporidium spp. positive calf had 8.3times higher odds of exposure to milk bottles cleaned 2 to 3times/week compared to negative calves that were exposed to bottles cleaned at every feeding. Positive calves also had 2.4 higher odds of exposure to bottles cleaned exclusively with disinfectant compared to bottles cleaned with disinfectant and water than negative calves. Cleaning bottles with only hot water was found to be protective against Cryptosporidium spp. shedding in calves compared to bottles cleaned with both water and disinfectant. Results of this study provided updated information on Cryptosporidium spp. genotypes infecting preweaned calves on California dairies and approaches to reducing oocysts shedding in calves.
    Adem Kumbe*
    A cross sectional study was carried out on cattle slaughtered at Asella municipal abattoir from November 2015 to April 2016 with the aim of determining the major causes of organ condemnation and estimate associated financial loss. A total of 600 randomly selected cattle were managed through ante-mortem and post-mortem examinations. From the total cattle inspected at ante-mortem examination 57 (9.5%) were found affected with different abnormal physical conditions.Majority of pathological lesions rendering organ condemnation in the abattoir were attributed to parasitic diseases accounting for 300 (50.0%) of major causes of organ condemnation followed by miscellaneous lesions contributing for 180 (30.0%) of losses. On the basis of organ condemnation rate recorded during the study period an estimated annual financial loss of 178,274.90 ETB was inevitably incurred due to rejection of organs. Conclusively parasitic diseases were the common causes of organ condemnation at Asella abattoir indicating that cattle owners should get awareness on management of parasitic diseases to decrease its burden and associated loss in their animals. Furthermore, abattoir workers and butchers should get relatable training to implement proper examination and disposal of organs condemned during meat inspection.
    Zekarias Woga and Biruk Alemu*
    A cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2017 to March 2018 in Gamo Gofa Zone, Demba Gofa District in SNNPR, to determine the prevalence of skin diseases in sheep and goats and to identify dominant risk factors associated with skin disease at the study area. A total of 383 small ruminants (189 sheep and 194 goats) were examined and 22.54% (86/383) were affected by skin disease. When examining animals in a different agro-ecological zone, the highest prevalence was observed in Sawla (28.9%), which represents lowland, followed by Zelele (19.53%), which represents Midland and Tsangaderara (18.9%), which represents highland. However, There was no statistically significant difference (p>0.05) in the occurrence rates of skin diseases among the three selected sites. The prevalence of skin disease in sheep and goats was 23.04% and 21.88% respectively. In the current study, bacterial, viral, parasitic and fungal infection was observed. Sheep and goat pox was the predominant disease in the study area, which accounted for 11.23% (43/383), followed by parasitic infestation 4.7% (18/383). Furthermore, the least prevalence was seen in fungal infection (dermatophytosis, 2.7%). Out of 211 females and 172 males examined, 11.8% (25/211) females and 8.5% (18/172) males were infected hence, there was no statistically significant difference (p>0.05) in the prevalence rates of skin diseases among sex. Prevalence observed among the body condition score were 15.41% (59/383) in poor body condition, 4.4% (17/383) in medium body condition and 2.614% (10/383) in good body condition that associated with statistically significant difference (p<0.05) with the occurrence of skin disease.The study revealed that the high prevalence of skin disease on small ruminant in the study area was due to associated risk factors that facilitate favorable environment for etiological agents. Attention should be given to the control and prevention of skin disease andfurtherstudy in the area should be conducted in order to determine the economic losses caused by small ruminants skin disease.
    Alexander R. Yeo, Charlene N. Berkvens, and James F. Hare*
    The ability to take repeated, in situ blood glucose readings using a hand-held glucometer has considerable utility for researchers. These devices are small, affordable, and impose minimal stress on test subjects, yet their reliability is uncertain. We assessed the precision and accuracy of the Accu-chek Aviva glucometer in measuring blood glucose concentrations from Richardsons ground squirrels, Urocitellus richardsonii, by taking repeated Accu-chek test strip readings and comparing those to readings from Manitoba Agricultures Veterinary Diagnostic Services Laboratory VITROS250 chemistry analyzer. Samples were collected at the Assiniboine Park Zoo in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada from 15 female ground squirrels. Our results show a relatively strong positive correlation between the blood glucose concentrations obtained using the Accu-chek Aviva glucometer and the VITROSsystem, with differences between those falling within the Canadian Diabetes Association bounds of acceptable error. While not significantly different, portable glucometer values were, on average, 0.852 mmol/L lower, and exhibited roughly twice the range of variation of the VITROS-derived blood glucoseconcentrations. We recommend that researchers employing this glucometer in the field conduct a similar validation to optimize the number of test-strip readings taken, and to calibrate their blood glucose measurements relative to those obtained from more accurate lab-basedinstruments.
    Short Communication
    Isabela Pereira de Oliveira Souza, and Wagner de Souza Tassinari*
    The aim of this paper is investigate the effects of rainfall in urban leptospiroses cases in a one the most largest city in the world, Rio de Janeiro/Brazil, in 2007 to 2017 period. Urban Leptospirosis study is relevant to public health because of its severity and mode of dissemination, being its occurrence greater in places with socio-environmental and climatic vulnerability, as Rio de Janeiro city. To evaluate the correlation between the time series of the human leptospirosis cases and rainfall, were used exploratory graphical analyzes and regression models. It was possible to observe that leptopirose cases are significantly associated with the monthly mean rainfall of the previous month (RR = 1.11 [95% CI: 1.08 - 1.15]), the increases of lepstopirosis cases in this urban setting happens according to rainfall. The monitoring not only of cases of leptospirosis, but also climatic variables, need to be taken into account in epidemiological surveillance. The implementation of public policies for basic sanitation, mainly in urban areas, are necessary for the maintenance and prevention of most neglectable infectious diseases.
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