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  • ISSN: 2378-931X
    Volume 1, Issue 1
    Editorial
    Yang Xu and Chengtao Her*
    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are deleterious because they frequently lead togenomic instability, cell death or cancer [1]. However, the formationofDSBs is also a key molecular event underlying the therapeutic effects of many anti-cancer agents.Cells have evolved complex network of DSB sensing and repair systems, collectively referred to as the DNA damage response and repair (DDR)pathway [2].
    Shaffer LG and Ramirez CJ
    The sequencing of the canine genome [1] and the development of advance molecular technologies has dramatically enabled the identification of disease-associated mutations that can be utilized in preconception screening in breeding programs and for making a definitive diagnosis in symptomatic dogs. Approximately 150 disease-associated mutations are known in the domestic dog [2].
    Case Report
    Kate L. Hepworth-Warren, David M. Wong*, Nyomi L. Galow-Kersh and Jackie M. Williams
    Abstract: Placental neoplasia was observed in an otherwise healthy Quarter Horse mare; subsequently, the mare's 52-day-old foal was examined because of hindlimb ataxia, urinary incontinence and abnormal raised lesions of the distal limbs. Clinical and biochemical findings were supportive of liver disease and lumbosacral injury. Ultrasonographic evaluation of the abdomen suggested a liver mass which was confirmed with computed tomography (CT) and determined to be neoplastic via histopathologic evaluation of a liver biopsy sample. Regions of lysis affecting both femurs and third metacarpal bones, and a complete oblique sagittal fracture through the body of the first sacral vertebra were present on CT. Supportive care was provided until CT confirmation of diffuse hepatic neoplasia and vertebral fracture. Necropsy revealed a large, multinodular mass within the liver and a pathologic fracture of the first sacral vertebral body. Histopathologic comparison between neoplastic cells examined from the placenta and foal confirmed metastases of a germ cell tumour. Placental tumours are rare in all species; however, when noted in horses, clinicians should be aware of the possibility of metastatic spread to the foal.
    Research Article
    Kriston F. Weaver, John V. Stokes, Sagen A. Gunnoe, Joyce S. Follows, Lydia Shafer, Mais G. Ammari, Todd M. Archer, John M. Thomason, Andrew J. Mackin and Lesya M. Pinchuk*
    Abstract: Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are known to control autoreactivity during and subsequent to the development of the peripheral immune system. Professional antigen presenting cells (APCs), dendritic cells (DCs) and monocytes, have an important role in inducing Tregs. For the first time, this study evaluated proportions and phenotypes of Tregs in canine peripheral blood depleted of professional APCs, utilizing liposomal clodronate (LC) and multicolor flow cytometry analysis.
    Our results demonstrate that LC exposure promoted short term decreases followed by significant increases in the proportions or absolute numbers of CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ Tregs in dogs. In general, the LC-dependent Treg fluctuations were similar to the changes in the levels of CD14+ monocytes in Walker hounds. However, the proportions of monocytes showed more dramatic changes compared to the proportions of Tregs that were visually unchanged after LC treatment over the study period. At the same time, absolute Treg numbers showed, similarly to the levels of CD14+ monocytes, significant compensatory gains as well as the recovery during the normalization period. We confirm the previous data that CD4+ T cells with the highest CD25 expression were highly enriched for FOXP3. Furthermore, for the first time, we report that CD4+CD25lowFOXP3+ is the major regulatory T cell subset affected by LC exposure. The increases within the lowest CD25 expressers of CD4+FOXP3+ cells together with compensatory gains in the proportion of CD14+ monocytes during compensatory and normalization periods suggest the possible direct or indirect roles of monocytes in active recruitment and generation of Tregs from naïve CD4+ T cells.
    Review Article
    Thomason J, Archer T, Mackin A, Stokes J and Pinchuk L*
    Abstract: Flow cytometry is a rapid, versatile and powerful technique that allows for qualitative and quantitative assessment of multiple parameters of individuals cells and particles. With the flexibility of flow cytometry, and the reliability of results, this technology has become an essential veterinary research instrument with important clinical diagnostic capabilities, particularly in the fields of immunology and hematology. This methodology has played a key role in the discovery of immunological cells and multiple aspects of canine immune function. Flow cytometric techniques have been instrumental in the identification of regulatory T lymphocytes and roles they play in autoimmune diseases, as well as characterizing and measuring cellular products, such as cytokines and other proteins. Flow cytometry has also been used in the pharmacodynamic monitoring of immunosuppressive therapies in dogs. Besides immunological cells, flow cytometry allows for the evaluation of erythrocytes, specifically the quantitation of reticulocytes, detection of anti-erythrocyte antibodies, and diagnosis of erythrocyte parasites. Similar techniques can also be applied to canine platelets to diagnosis immature reticulated platelets and anti-platelet antibodies. Flow cytometry can also be used to assess various aspects of platelet function. Flow cytometry is most often applied in veterinary oncology to diagnosis and stage lymphoid neoplasia and leukemia, and can also be used to assess neoplastic and non-neoplastic marrow conditions. This article will cover some of the most common and popular uses of flow cytometry in small animals, and discuss the influences that this technology has on veterinary research and small animal clinical medicine.
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