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  • ISSN: 2378-931X
    Volume 1, Issue 2
    Review Article
    Weiping Zhang*
    Abstract: Porcine Post-Weaning Diarrhea (PWD) continues to be one of the most important swine diseases worldwide. Entero Toxigenic Escherichia Coli (ETEC) strains are the primary cause of PWD. The key virulence factors of ETEC in PWD are bacterial fimbrialadhesins and enterotoxins. Adhesions mediate ETEC bacteria initial attachment to pig epithelial cells and subsequent colonization at pig small intestines. Entertoxins including heat-Labile Toxin (LT) and heat-Stable Toxins (ST) disrupt fluid homeostasis in small intestinal epithelial cells to cause electrolyte-rich fluid hyper-secretion and diarrhea. Currently there are no effective prevention measures to protect weaned pigs against PWD. Vaccination would be the most practical and effective prevention approach, and vaccines inducing anti-adhesion immunity to block ETEC attachment and colonization and also antitoxin immunity to neutralize enter toxicity are considered optimal against ETEC-associated PWD. Although progress has been made in past decades in developing effective vaccines against PWD, challenges continue to exist due to the disease complexity and immunological heterogeneity among ETEC strains. Recent progress in using safe toxoid antigens, toxoid fusion antigens and MEFA (multiepitope fusion antigen) approach to develop multivalent vaccines for broad protection, however, shows promising in developing new vaccines foreffective protection against ETEC-associated PWD.
    Mais G. Ammari, Autumn N. Harris, John V. Stokes, Richard H. Bailey and Lesya M. Pinchuk*
    Abstract: Recent studies have shown that monocytes and macrophages not only present antigens to effector T cells and stimulate and shape T cell-mediated immune responses, but they also prime naïve T cells, thus initiating adaptive immune responses. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase functions at an early phase of toll-like receptor signaling pathways, modulates the magnitude of the primary immune responses, and is involved in the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton during macropinocytic and phagocytic antigen uptakes, important early steps in triggering adaptive immune responses.
    We assessed by flow cytometry the endocytic capacities of bovine monocytes by using endocytic tracers and Salmonella transformed with a green fluorescence plasmid GFP to evaluate macropinocytosis, mannose receptor-mediated endocytosis, and phagocytosis in bovine professional antigen presenting cells, respectively. Our data reveal that wortmannin, an inhibitor of phosphoinositide 3-kinase signaling pathway, significantly increased macropinocytosis and phagocytosis but did not affect the mannose receptor-mediated antigen uptake in bovine monocytes. Protein expression data support these findings by showing decreased levels of phosphoinositide 3-kinase in the presence of wortmannin during macropinocytosis.
    We expanded further the key role of phosphoinositide 3-kinase as an endogenous suppressor of primary immune responses, suggesting a novel mechanism of phosphoinositide 3-kinase antigen uptake modulation that may provide a unique therapeutic target for controlling excessive inflammation.
    Case Report
    Joshua Onyango CertAH*, Wanda McCormick and Stella Chapman
    Abstract: In May 2014, severe disease affecting areas around the muzzle and the entire buccal mucosa was observed in two lambs from a flock of approximately 200 Highlander and Charolaise ewes. The lambs were ten weeks old. Clinical signs ofproliferative lesions around the mucocutanous junction of the mouth and the presence of scabs extending for 4 to 6 cm around the muzzlewere supportive of severe orf. No laboratory test was undertaken. It was therefore deemed necessary to offer treatment against secondary infection. Both lambs responded very well to a combination of 200mg/kg procaine penicillin and 250mg/kg body weight dihydrostreptomycin sulphateand 1,5 pentanedial in petroleum based soft emollient cream administered once daily for three consecutive days. The treatment regime showed that secondary infection during severe orf cases can be treated with penicillin-streptomycin and petroleum based soft emollient cream in order to reduce losses associated with the disease.
    Research Article
    Wanzhe Yuan, Ligong Chen, Xiuyuan Zhang, Yan Qi, Mingtan Sun, Yingshuai Zheng, Jing Liu, Gengnan Wang, Jiguo Sun and Juxiang Liu*
    Abstract: Avian influenza virus (AIV) is one of the major zoonosis pathogens and is found chiefly in birds, but infections can occur in humans. In this study, a TaqMan-based real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay targeting M1 gene of AIV was developed and their sensitivities and specificities were investigated. The results indicated that the standard curve had a wide dynamic range (101-107 copies/μL) with a linear correlation (R2) of 0.992 between the cycle threshold (Ct) value and template concentration. The real-time RT-PCR assay is highly sensitive and able to detect 2.3χ102 copies/μL of AIV RNA, as no cross-reaction was observed with other viruses from avian. Using the developed method, we conducted an epidemiological survey of AIV in Hebei province, northern China. Our investigation of clinical samples indicated that AIV was present in healthy chicken flocks at a frequency of 0.8% (2/240) in Hebei province from January 2013 to December 2013. Ten of 30 (33.3%) samples from diseased and deceased chickens were positive by the real-time RT-PCR. Our results demonstrates a prevalence of AIV in Hebei province and highlights the need for further epidemiological and genetics studies of AIV in this area.
    Yosuke Amagai, Kaoru Karasawa, Hiroshi Matsuda and Akane Tanaka*
    Abstract: In dogs, glaucoma is one of difficult diseases to be controlled. In this study, we evaluated advantage of diode laser transscleral cyclophotocoagulation (TSCP) in combination with trabeculectomy for a new treatment of glaucoma in canine subjects. Under general anesthesia, diode laser was delivered at a site 2-3 mm posterior to the limbus. After TSCP, trabeculectomy was performed to avoid postoperative ocular hypertension. The intraocular pressure (IOP) was monitored regularly for more than 3 months after surgery. Effectiveness of the combination therapy was compared with independent treatment of TSCP or trabeculectomy. In most dogs that were received the combination therapy, the IOP was normalized by a single treatment. On the other hand, in dogs treated with TSCP alone or treated with trabeculectomy alone, the IOP was not acceptably controlled. Combined TSCP with trabeculectomy may be effective for normalizing the IOP in refractory glaucoma in dogs without remarkable side effects.
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