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  • ISSN: 2378-931X
    Volume 1, Issue 3
    Linjie Pan*
    Nearly 1 of every 50 people (approximately 6 million) in the United States lives with at least some degree of paralysis. Paralysis occurs as the result of various nervous system injuries and/or neurological diseases. The research of treatment of paralysis is significant for the society. The application of electric fields (Efs) as a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of damaged nerves has been explored since the early twentieth century [1], with primary success to date being observed in amphibian, avian and mammalian models of neural injury.
    Review Article
    Isloor S, Marissen WE, Veeresh BH, NithinPrabhu K, Kuzmin IV, Rupprecht CE* Satyanarayana ML, Deepti B R, Sharada R, Neelufer MS, Yathiraj S and Abdul Rahman S
    Abstract: This is the first documented evidence of rabies in the Indian wolf (Canis lupus pallipes) to date. The study describes the laboratory confirmation of rabies in wolf from the southern Indian state of Karnataka by the direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) test and a direct rapid immunohistochemistry test (dRIT). The PCR amplified products of complete N and G genes of this wolf RABV were sequenced and processed. The BLAST results and phylogenetic analysis revealed high homology and genetic relatedness of this RABV isolate with those from nearby geographic locations such as in India (human, buffalo), Pakistan (wolf, cattle) and Nepal (goat).
    Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences of the complete N and G proteins revealed that wolf RABV isolate recovered in this study belonged to the Arctic-like lineage, which is wide spread throughout the Indian subcontinent, and the region. These findings emphacise the necessity of epidemiological surveillance to characterize regional lyssaviruses to ascertain if wolves (and other wild species) serve as a significant population for RABV enzootic maintenance in India.
    Research Article
    Felix Giebels, Barbara Kohn, Nadia Shihab, Holger A Volk and Shenja Loderstedt*
    Abstract: The biceps tendon reflex (BTR) of thirty-two dogs with a median age of 5 (0.5-15) years and a median weight of 17.5 (5.8-57) kg was assessed by two examiners. The examinations were videotaped and evaluated by 12 observers. The observers were divided in three groups depending on level of expertise (neurologists, veterinary surgeons and students). Each group evaluated the reflex-presence and reflex-briskness. Kappa-analysis and Intercorrelation-coefficient (ICC) were applied for analysis of interobserver-agreement. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the influence of sex, age, weight, fur length and examiner on the interobserver-agreement.
    The interobserver-agreement was highest for the neurologist-group and lowest for the student-group. Neither sex, weight, age, fur length or the person who did the exam influences the interobserver-agreement. The level of expertise is an influencing factor on interobserver-agreement of canine BTR evaluation. In healthy dogs the BTR can be reliable assessed by veterinary neurologists. The clinical significance is still unknown as the BTR was only assessed in healthy dogs.
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