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  • ISSN: 2378-931X
    Volume 2, Issue 1
    Research Article
    Kali Lazzerini*, Andrea Tipold, Marion Kornberg, Cornelia Silaghi, Andreas Mietze, Antina Lubke-Becker, Anneliese Balling, Martin Pfeffer, Lothar H. Wieler, Kurt Pfister and Barbara Kohn
    Abstract: In most cases of inflammatory central nervous system [CNS] diseases in dogs, infectious agents remain undetected. Immunopathological studies suggest that such antigens may trigger an autoimmune response ["hit-and-Run hypothesis"] in some patients. In order to define the role of vector-borne pathogens in the aetiology of steroid-responsive meningitis-arteritis [SRMA] or meningoencephalomyelitis of unknown aetiology [MUE], blood and cerebrospinal fluid [CSF] of dogs were analysed for such pathogens.
    66 client-owned dogs were included in the prospective multicenter study over a two year period. They were classified into 3 groups: 1] trauma group: dogs with non-inflammatory CNS diseases [n=21], 2] dogs with MUE [n=22], 3] dogs with SRMA [n=23].
    DNA of A. phagocytophilum was found in EDTA-blood of 4 dogs [SRMA group]. Serological and PCR analyses for E. canis were negative in blood and serum of all dogs. B. henselae DNA was detected in blood of 1 dog [SRMA group]. There were no significant differences between the 3 groups regarding the seroprevalence of Bartonella spp. [n=61] and B. burgdorferi sensu lato [n=61]. Neither antibodies against TBEV in serum nor DNA of vector-transmitted agents was found in CSF in any of the dogs. Pasteurellaceae spp. DNA was detected in 3 dogs of the trauma group, suggesting contamination.
    There was no correlation between the presence of E. canis or B. henselae DNA or elevated antibody titers against E. canis, Bartonella spp., TBEV or B. burgdorferi sensu lato and inflammatory CNS diseases. A. phagocytophilum may play a role as a trigger of a secondary immunopathy.
    Short Communication
    Paulo Cesar Sallum, Laila Massad Ribas* and Eduardo Massad
    Objective: To quantify the impact of dogs' population control strategies and their repercussion on zoonoses.
    Methods: Mathematical model based on the generation projection known as Leslie's matrix and takes into account the age-dependent fertility rates and survival probabilities of females.
    Results: We applied the model for a real community in the city of Guarulhos, localized in the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo City, Southeastern Brazil. Considering the total number of wandering dogs estimated by the capture-recapture method of 794 we can estimate, by the ratio male/female of 1.7 that there are about 294 females in the streets of the borough. These females are then able to generate about 271 female offspring.
    Conclusions: The capture and culling strategy is more efficient in reducing the females' population in 20 years than the sterilization strategy. In addition, the culling strategy is somewhat more expensive but it is cheaper than an official sterilization program.
    Caroline M Andrews, Landon Bulloch, Taylor Dennison, Jordan Elder, Ashley Mitchell, Meredith T. Rivenbank, Kayla J Schiling and Vincent S Gallicchio*
    Background: The need for convenient ways to access technology is expanding. A plethora of apps now exist to make daily life easier for the common person. The medical field has begun to integrate apps into the diagnostic tool set in order to improve human medicine. This form of personal care not only makes patient visits easier for both patient and practitioner because tests and check ups are performed at only one location, physicians believe apps will also enhance their interaction with patients.
    Purpose: One may then wonder about the effect of mobile technology in the delivery of veterinary clinical medicine. While human medicine incorporates the use of mobile devices for human disease, their use in veterinary medicine is lagging.
    Methods: Through use of an online survey a sampling of veterinarians were queried to investigate whether or not they believe use of mobile technology will improve their practice.
    Results: Veterinarians believe there is a strong desire for mobile technology in veterinary medicine and the use of this technology will allow them to practice more effectively. Results showed mobile devices are prevalent and widespread among veterinarians with more than sixty percent surveyed strongly agreed mobile technology will advance patient care, client communication, and improve access to clinical data and medical literature.
    Conclusion: Gaining insight from veterinarians on mobile technology will help ignite the creation of veterinary apps and other mobile devices to improve the quality and delivery of veterinary clinical medicine.
    Research Article
    Jovanir Ines Muller Fernandes*, Cristiano Bortoluzzi, Alvaro Mario Burin Junior, Anete Rorig, Rafaela Perini and Adrieli Braga de Cristo
    Abstract: Some insoluble components, such as non-starch polyssacharaides in corn and soybean meal, are not digested by broiler chickens and may interfere withthe absorption of other nutrients or affect the digestibility and the energy value of the diet. With the objective ofevaluating the inclusion of enzymatic complexes in diets based on corn and soybean meal on the productive performance of broilers raised at high stocking density, a pen trial using 1,456 one-day-old broiler chickens in a randomized design with 4 treatments and 7 replicates of 52 birds/pen (17 birds /m2) was conducted. The treatments were as follows: Control diet (commercial diet used by a commercial company); Control diet + enzymatic complex (100 mg/kg of protease, amylase, and xylanase); Control diet + 1500 mg/kg of a-galactosidase; and Control diet + 500 mg/kg of protease. The means were compared by using Dunnett's test, while adopting the control treatment as the reference treatment. At 7 d of age, there was no difference among the treatments. However, at 21 and 35 d of age, supplementation with enzymatic complexes improved the performance of the birds when compared to the control treatment, regardless of the type of enzyme that was used. No differences for the carcass and cuts yields were observed. The inclusion of enzymes in the diets of broilers raised at high stocking density has beneficial effects on the productive performance and its use must be considered as an important tool to reduce costs and to improve the intestinal health in broiler flocks
    Rahim Mohammadi*, Hawdam Rostami, Payman Tavakoli, Salam Elayh, Hadi Salehi, Puyan Aliyali, Hazhir Soleimani and Keyvan Amini
    Abstract: The aim was to evaluate the effect of locally administered insulin-like growth factor (IGF I) on functional recovery of peripheral nerve in diabetic rats. Sixty male healthy white Wistar rats were divided into four experimental groups (n = 15), randomly: In transected group (TC), left sciatic nerve was transected and stumps were fixed in the adjacent muscle. In treatment group defect was bridged using a silicone conduit (SIL/IGF) and filled with 10 μL IGF I (100 ng/kg). In silicone graft group (SIL), the graft was filled with phosphate-buffered saline alone. In sham-operated group (SHAM), sciatic nerve was exposed and manipulated. Each group was subdivided into three subgroups of five animals each and regenerated nerve fibers were studied 4, 8 and 12 weeks after surgery. Behavioral testing, sciatic nerve functional study, gastrocnemius muscle mass and morphometric indices confirmed faster recovery of regenerated axons in SIL/IGF than in SIL group (p < 0.05). In immunohistochemistry, location of reactions to S-100 in SIL/IGF was clearly more positive than that in SIL group. When loaded in a silicone graft, IGF I accelerated and improved functional recovery and morphometric indices of sciatic nerve in diabetic rats.
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