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  • ISSN: 2378-931X
    Volume 2, Issue 2
    Research Article
    Rahim Mohammadi, Abolhasan Alijanpour, Kamran Alijanpour and Keyvan Amini
    Abstract: The objective was to assess the effect of locally administered nimodipine on transected peripheral nerve regeneration and functional recovery. Sixty male healthy white Wistar rats were divided into four experimental groups (n = 15), randomly: In transected group (TC), left sciatic nerve was transected and stumps were fixed in the adjacent muscle. In treatment group defect was bridged using an inside-out artery graft (IOAG/Nimodipine) filled with 10 μL nimodipine (100 ng/mL). In artery graft group (IOAG), the graft was filled with phosphate-buffered saline alone. In sham-operated group (SHAM), sciatic nerve was exposed and manipulated. Each group was subdivided into three subgroups of five animals each and regenerated nerve fibers were studied 4, 8 and 12 weeks after surgery. Behavioral testing, biomechanical studies, sciatic nerve functional study, gastrocnemius muscle mass and morphometric indices confirmed faster recovery of regenerated axons in IOAG/Nimodipine than IOAG group (p < 0.05). In immunohistochemistry, location of reactions to S-100 in IOAG/Nimodipine was clearly more positive than that in IOAG group. When loaded in an artery graft nimodipine accelerated and improved functional recovery and morphometric indices of sciatic nerve. This may have clinical implications for the surgical management of patients after facial nerve transection.
    Zhixun Xie*, Qing Fan, Zhiqin Xie, Yaoshan Pang, Xianwen Deng, Liji Xie, Jiabo Liu and Mazhar I. Khan*
    Abstract: Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and bovine rotavirus (BRV) are important pathogens of cattle. These pathogenselicitsigns that is sometimes difficult to differentiate. A real-time duplex RT-PCR assay would allow the simultaneous detection of the two viruses in the same sample. A real-time duplex RT-PCR assay was developed and optimized. The detection limit of the assay was 5 TCID50 or 100 RNA copies of BVDV and 20 TCID50 or 100 RNA copies for BRV. No cross reactivity with other bovine pathogens was detected. Both standard curves have amplification efficiency (E) of 1.06-0.95 and a correlation coefficient (R2) of 0.9917-0.9988, with the dynamic range of detection between 103 to 108copies per reaction. The sensitivity and specificityof this assay were compared with single real-time RT-PCR and conventional RT-PCR assays to verify its accuracy and sensitivity.The standardized duplex real-time RT-PCR confirmed the presence of viral RNA in 26 of 93 clinical samples. Two clinical samples were shown to be co-infected with both BVDV and BRV. This optimized real-time assay will be useful as a new sensitive diagnostic tool in epidemiological investigations of diarrheas in cattle.
    Douglas Lyman*, Laura J. Clark and Kristin Campbell
    Abstract: An extensive review of Wisconsin Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory(WVDL) accessions along with the results of slaughter house surveys indicate that copper is accumulating in the livers of Wisconsin Holsteins of all ages. Two hundred eleven WVDL accessions were reviewed based on breed(Holstein), age and results of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy(ICP-MS) liver element testing. The overall (all ages) mean liver copper(Cu) was 144ppm wet weight(ww). Animals > 2 years averaged 145ppm ww, those 1-24 months averaged 174ppm ww, those birth-30 days averaged 119ppm ww and fetuses averaged 95ppm ww. The average liver Cu for 45 fresh samples from cull dairy cows procured at a slaughter plant was 163ppm ww. This population may have included a few colored dairy cows (Jersey, Guernsey and Brown Swiss). Excess copper is thought to enter into reactions that result in the production of oxygen radicals, particularly the very toxic hydroxyl radical. These radicals damage the lipid moiety of cellular membranes, a form of oxidative stress. 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) is one of many compounds that are generated by the reaction of oxygen radicals with the lipid moiety of cellular membranes. Immunohistochemical staining of livers with excess copper for 4-HNE is often positive, suggesting copper related oxidative damage. Copper is accumulating in the livers of Wisconsin Holsteins of all ages and may be causing oxidative liver damage.
    Maria Adelaida Mejia, Maria Patricia Arias, Leonardo Fabio Gomez and Oscar Leonardo Gomez
    Abstract: In the present research, we describe the expression and type of oligosaccharides residues in each of the layers of canine atrioventricular valves. We used ten mitral and tricuspid valves of healthy dogs, which underwent histopathological and histochemical processing with lectins, to characterize quantity, type and distribution of oligosaccharides residues in each of the layers of canine atrioventricular valves. We observed increased positivity to a-D-GalNAc residues in mitral valve layers, particularly in the atrial layer. Furthermore, we found homogenous distribution of a-D-Man>a-D-Glc in both valves and increased GlcNAc>sialic acid expression in the atrial layer of mitral valve and of a-D-Gal residues in the atrial and ventricular layers of mitral valve. Statistically significant difference was found on the expression of aD-GalNAc in healthy patients (p <0.05) between the atrial layer of the mitral and the tricuspid valve, with higher expression of this residue in the mitral valve. Although mitral and tricuspid valves share similar morphology, they have differences in the expression of GAGs. Further studies are required to link GAGs distribution with cardiovascular diseases affecting dogs.
    Case Report
    Gözde R. Ozalp*, M. Ozgur Ozyigit, Hayrettin Yildiz, Volkan Ipek, Sevda Inan Ozturkoglu and O. Nuri Akcay3
    Abstract: A six-year-old female spayed Alaska bitch was presented for vaginal bleeding. Cytological, ultrasonographic and endocrinological examinations revealed an ovarian problem leading hyperestrogenism and TVT. Operation was performed. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of an ovarian neoplastic condition and developing endocrine disorder after incomplete ovary removal, which brought out overt clinical estrus and mating willingness resulting in transmissible venereal tumor in a 6-year-old Alaska bitch.
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