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  • ISSN: 2378-931X
    Volume 2, Issue 3
    Research Article
    Tugba Ozaydin* and Emrah Sur
    Abstract: In this study, the effects of in ovo administrated aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) on the histomorphological changes of developing cerebellar cortex and the AgNOR activity of the Purkinje cell nuclei of chickens in the post-hatching period were investigated. For this purpose, 730 laying hen eggs were divided into 7 groups [3 control groups (not-treated, drilled-sealed and 30% ethanol (solvent)-injected groups) and 4 assay groups in which eggs were injected with increasing AFB1 doses (2.5, 7.5, 12.5 and 17.5 ng/egg)] then conventionally incubated. Tissue samples were taken from six animals of each control and experimental groups on the hatching day and 10th, 20th and 28th days after hatching. The samples, which were fixed in 4% neutral-buffered formalin, were dehydrated, cleared, and embedded in paraffin. The sections taken from the paraffin blocks were stained with haematoxylin-eosin and AgNOR staining methods. Quantitative computer assisted morphometric study was done on the cortical layer of the cerebellum. Histomorphometric examination revealed that there were no significant differences among the groups in the thicknesses of molecular and granular cell layer at summit and in the fissure of folium of the cerebellar cortex and AgNOR parameters of Purkinje cell nuclei. In conclusion the administration of a low concentration of AFB1 in ovo at the beginning of early embryonic development may not profoundly affect the development of the cerebellar cortex or the damage to the cerebellum, if occurring, might get repaired during subsequent stages of development.
    Enem S.I and Oboegbulem S.I
    Abstract: Abstract Verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) are a group of pathogenic E. coli bacteria that are causing major food safety concerns across the globe. Historically, infection has been most commonly associated with VTEC serogroup O157 in most parts of the world. The objective of the study was to establish the occurrence of VTEC O157 serotype in cattle in the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) Abuja, Nigeria. The strength of association of the infection with sex, age and season were also determined. A cross sectional epidemiological design and multi stage sampling technique were used. Samples of freshly voided faeces were collected from both apparently healthy and diarrhoeic cattle in selected abattoirs and cattle herds. Enriched samples were analyzed bacteriologically and biochemically after which they were characterised using commercially procured sorbitol MacConkey and latex agglutination test kits. A total of 718 faecal samples from cattle were analyzed for the presence of VTEC O157. Seventeen (2.4%) were positive. Three hundred and fifty eight were from cattle herds out of which 8 (2.23%) were positive while 360 were from abattoir out of which 9 (2.25%) were positive. There was no strong association (p > 0.05) between sex and infection with VTEC O157. A strong association (P < 0.05) existed between age and infection with VTEC O157. Calves were more likely to be infected than the adults. There was also a strong association (P < 0.05) between season and infection with VTEC O157 and infection was more likely to occur in the dry season than the wet season. As a major food animal in Nigeria, infection in cattle provides an epidemiological causal association to the infections in humans.
    Vicki Wilke, Sara Zaldivar-Lopez, Kari Ekenstedt, Richard Evans, Michael Conzemius
    Abstract: Cranial cruciate ligament disease (CCLD) is the most common cause of limping in the dog and genetics contributes to etiology in many cases. Newfoundland (n=46) and Labrador retriever (n=333) dogs were evaluated. After exam, DNA was collected, processed, and genotyped using canine high-density genome wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) and efficient mixed model analysis (EMMA) were performed. Significant SNPs were used to build a classification tree using a 5-fold cross validation method and a classification tree was assessed using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. The objective was to identify genetic markers associated with CCLD in Newfoundland and Labrador retriever dogs and evaluate a diagnostic test that estimates an individual dog's probability of developing CCLD based on genotype.
    For Newfoundlands, three SNPs were used in the classification tree to best predict risk of CCLD with the area under the ROC equal to 0.96. For Labrador retrievers, thirteen SNPs were used in the classification tree to best predict risk of CCLD with the area under the ROC equal to 0.88.
    Within the Newfoundland and Labrador retriever breeds, genotype, appears to influence the risk of CCLD. A genotype-based classification tree allowed for reasonable estimation of disease risk for an individual dog in this study. These findings should be further validated in additional populations before used as a tool for selection of dogs that have a reduced risk of CCLD.
    Case Report
    John Rossmeisl*, Kelli Kopf and Jeffrey Ruth
    Abstract: Here we describe the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features of three cases of intracranial meningiomas characterized by transcalvarial tumor extension or cerebral herniation through spontaneous osteolytic skull defects overlying the tumors. All tumors appeared as solitary, lobulated, well marginated, extra-axial, and markedly contrast enhancing mass lesions, with inherent MR signal characteristics similar to those described for meningiomas. Histopathological examinations indicated that calvarial osteolysis can occur via tumor invasion of bone or tumor associated bone resorption. Osteolysis of the skull and transcalvarial tumor extension are rare manifestations of Grade I or Grade II canine and feline meningiomas.
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