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  • ISSN: 2378-931X
    Volume 2, Issue 4
    Research Article
    Abel Wade, Aboubakar Yaya, Abdul Dahiru El-Yuguda, Hermann Unger, Nafarnda, Wesley Daniel, Enem Simon Ikechukwu and Godwin Oyeamechi Egwu
    Abstract: A one year (February 2009 - January 2010) prevalence study on contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) was conducted among cattle slaughter at the Garoua central abattoir in the northern region of Cameroon. Lung and pulmonary lymph node samples were collected from 384 randomly selected cattle carcasses during meat inspection and taken to National Veterinary Laboratory for analysis using culture and PCR techniques. Abattoir visit was done once a week and any 5th carcass was sampled and records of gross lesions, age, gender and breed of each sampled cattle were taken. Based on gross lesion examination, 114 (29.7%) of the 384 carcasses examined were classified positive for CBPP. From breed distribution, the red Mbororo presented a prevalence of 32%, the white Fulani (33%), the Adamawa Gudali (13%) and non-specified breeds had lower rates 0%, most likely resulting from the low number of animals. Male had a slightly higher prevalence of 35% then female with 28%. The age distribution showed the 5 to 10 year-old age group presented a significantly (p<0.05) higher prevalence rate (46%) than the 0 - 5 years (17%) and those of 10 years and above (11%). Only 1.6% of the samples gave a positive isolation, while the PCR found 3.4% positive. This is the first laboratory-based prevalence study of CBPP conducted in Cameroon. The use of PCR in CBPP surveillance especially in test and slaughter process for disease eradication programme is recommended.
    Short Communication
    Ronald J. Corbee, Marianna A. Tryfonidou, Guy C.M. Grinwis, Claudia F. Wolschrijn, Seng Fong Lau, Ben M.C. Gorissen, Henri C.M. Heuven, Arie B. Vaandrager, and Herman A.W. Hazewinkel
    Introduction: Medial coronoid disease (MCD) is a common heritable disease in young large-breed dogs and is characterized by fissures and/or fragmentation of the medial coronoid process (MCP), cartilage, and/or subchondral bone. MCD development has also been attributed to disturbed endochondral ossification. Vitamin D influences skeletal development and endochondral ossification by stimulating the terminal differentiation of chondrocytes and the mineralization of cartilage and the newly formed osteoid. The aim of this study was to investigate whether vitamin D supplementation of the standard puppy diet given to puppies after weaning can prevent the development of medial coronoid disease (MCD) by stimulating endochondral ossification, including terminal differentiation of chondrocytes, and mineralization of the cartilaginous template of the developing medial cornoid process (MCP).
    Animals, material and methods: A litter of Labrador puppies was on purpose bred by mating a dam and a sire with MCD; these dogs are known to produce offspring with MCD. The puppies received a diet supplemented with 50,000 IU vitamin D per kg as fed. Development of MCD was monitored by computed tomography (CT) and plain radiographs every two weeks, and post-mortem by microCT, necropsy, histology, and immunohistochemistry and compared with data from a previous study.
    Results and discussion: Vitamin D supplementation did result in increased plasma levels of 25- vitamin D and 1.25-vitamin D, but did not prevent development of MCD in growing Labradors. Instead, vitamin D supplementation resulted in increased collagen X staining ofthe MCP and irregular costal growth plates, demonstrating disturbed endochondral ossification.
    Conclusion: Vitamin D supplementation does not prevent MCD development. Other causes for MCD rather than relative vitamin D deficiency causing disturbed endochondral ossification are more likely.
    Ronald J. Corbee, Arie B. Vaandrager, Marja JL. Kik, Martijn R. Molenaar, and Herman AW. Hazewinkel
    Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the differences of the ability to synthesize sufficient amounts of vitamin D in the skin of different carnivorous species. To this endskin tissue of 22 different carnivorous species were collected from dead animals from zoo's and our pathology department. Wis tar rat skin served as a positive control.Cholesterol, 7-DHC, and vitamin D content was determined after UVB exposure at 37°C, and compared to non-irradiated skin.Overall, there was a significant effect of species and skin thickness, but not of UVB irradiation, on 7-DHC and vitamin D concentrations of the skin.The relatively low cutaneous levels of the vitamin D precursor 7-DHC observed in this study suggest that most terrestrial carnivores are unable to synthesize sufficient amounts of vitamin D. The results have to be taken into account when preparing food for these species when held under captive conditions.
    Katsuji Uetake, Miyuki Maruyama and Tomonari Abumi
    Abstract: We measured mineral concentrations in hair of adult cats to gather information about their changes with age. Forty-seven cats aged one to twelve years were classified into three age groups (adolescence, adulthood, and middle scene) depending on their development and physical functions. Cats were kept individually in cages indoors in the same environmental conditions. They were randomly fed one of ten ordinary cat foods commercially sold in Japan. The amount of cat food provided was based on the body weight. Hair samples were collected from the neck by using a razor. The levels of Mg, P, K, Ca, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Se, and Mo in the hair were detected by ICP-MS. A significant positive correlation was observed in adult cats between hair phosphorus concentration and age (r = 0.453, n = 47, P < 0.01). The hair P concentration of cats in middle scene was significantly higher (mean = 6.54, SD = 1.72, n = 12) than those of the other two age groups (mean = 4.67, SD = 1.44, n = 12, for cats in adolescence and mean = 5.01, SD = 1.62, n = 23, for cats in adulthood; both P <0.05). Thus, the P concentration in hair changed with the age of adult cats.
    Review Article
    Viviane De Oliveira Felizardo*, Carlos Cicinato Vieira Melo, Marco Aurélio Dessimoni Dias, Roberson Machado Pimentel, Rilke Tadeu Fonseca De Freitas and Luis David Solis Murgas
    Abstract: The study of the use of morphometric variables in the evaluation of body income in fish is of great importance from an economic point of view, because through them, can make an estimation of productivity, both for the farmer and for the fish processing industry; or even serve as selection criteria in breeding programs. The fish carcass quality is an essential factor for defining the preparation processes of products and types of fish cuts. Over the years it was developed several methods to evaluate in vivo animal goals to help the breeding and commercially classify carcasses. The housing assessment work, are disabled by the lack of standardization of the terms used and due to the divergence of body regions in which measurements are obtained. These facts undermine the comparison of data in the same species and in different species. Some morphometric measurements may exhibit a linear relationship with the body weight and the yield, indicating that there is proportionality between these parameters during growth. In breeding programs, knowledge of the correlation between characters is important when you want to do simultaneous selection or when a character of interest has a low heritability, problems of difficulty of measurement or identification. The correlation unfolding is dependent on the number of characters studied, which is generally established by prior knowledge the investigator as to their importance to possible inter-relationships expressed in path diagrams.
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