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  • ISSN: 2378-931X
    Volume 2, Issue 5
    Research Article
    Hajime Kato, Reiichiro Sato, Mamoru Oonishi and Motoshi Tajima*
    Abstract: We investigated the immune responses against bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) by two different vaccination protocols. An attenuated-live vaccine (containing BHV-1 and BVDV-1) and an inactivated vaccine (containing inactivated virus antigens of BHV-1, BVDV-1, and BVDV-2) were used. Two different immunization protocols were investigated: inoculation of live vaccine 28 days after inactivated vaccine inoculation (KL), and inoculation of inactivated vaccine 28 days after live vaccine inoculation (LK). Antibodies against BHV-1, BVDV-1, and BVDV-2 were examined. Antibody titer against BHV-1 was significantly higher in calves vaccinated by the KL protocol 30 days post inoculation (dpi). On the other hand, antibody titer against BVDV-1 was significantly lower in calves vaccinated by the KL protocol 30 dpi. However, approximately equivalent antibody titers were observed using either protocol by 56 dpi. No significant difference in antibody titer against BVDV-2 was observed between the two protocols, with a nearly equivalent immune response acquired by 56 dpi. These results suggest that when combination vaccines are used, the vaccination protocol should be selected depending on the prevalence of infectious diseases in each farm.
    Upik Kesumawati Hadi* and Maurin Adventini
    Abstract: The brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille) is one of the most important ectoparasites of dogs and is often found in various countries in the world and is a blood-sucking ectoparasite and acts a vector of various diseases. This study aims to examine the fecundity and oviposition of engorged female brown dog ticks collected from Bogor, Indonesia, including the number of egg production, the pre-oviposition period, the oviposition period, the pre-hatching egg period, and the rate of eggs hatchability. Thirty engorged female ticks were collected from dogs then they were weighed, reared individually in plastic jars, and kept for 30 days in the laboratory at room temperature. The results showed that the average body weight of the engorged ticks collected from dogs was 68.3 mg (30-130 mg) and the number of eggs produced was 805.4 eggs/tick (135-1707 eggs). The eggs of R. sanguineus were oval, dark brown, shiny, measuring 0.5 mm in length and 0.4 mm in width, and the average egg mass weight was 32.68 mg/tick (5-70 mg). The egg hatchability was 53.95 % (25-82.3%) at a room temperature of 25-27 ºC and a relative humidity of 80-90%. The average pre-oviposition period of this tick was 4.9 days (3-7 days), and the average oviposition period was a 14.3 days (9-19 days). The pre-hatching period, the period from the end of oviposition until the eggs begin to hatch into larvae was 6.9 days (1-17 days). Therefore, the egg incubation period of this tick is the oviposition period plus pre-hatching period: 14.3 + 6.9 days = 21.2 days (17-29 days). This is the first record of the fecundity of the brown dog tick of Indonesia.
    Mayada Gwida*, Maged El-Ashker, Mohamed El-Diasty, Falk Melzer and Heinrich Neubauer
    Abstract: There is currently an obvious discrepancy between the officially reported data for seroprevalence of human and animal Brucellosis in Egypt and the data obtained from scientific reports. The present study gives a preliminary data about the seroprevalence of Brucella infection in dairy cattle herds from three large Egyptian Governorates located in the Nile Delta region. The study population consisted of 2.830 dairy cattle from private farms in Dakahlia, Damietta and Port-Said Governorates. Serum samples were randomly collected from 811 cows (203 animals showed reproductive disorders group 1); while 608 were apparently healthy (group 2). The collected sera were tested by Rose Bengal Test (RBT), Enzyme Linked Immunosorbant Assay (ELISA) and Fluorescent Polarization Assay (FPA). The overall seroprevelance among the tested cows in the first group was 52.2% (106/203). ELISA showed the highest number of positive reactors (n = 138; 67.9%) followed by FPA (n = 120; 59.11%) and RBT (n = 109; 53.7%); while in group 2, the number of positive animals were 25 (4.2%), 20 (3.3%) and 11 (1.8%) by using RBT, ELISA and FPA, respectively. It is very likely that brucellosis poses a great risk to consumers in the study region and can be a potential source of infection to animal keepers, veterinarians and slaughterhouse workers. Further studies are warranted to unravel the epidemiological situation of human, animal and environmental brucellosis in other regions of Egypt.
    Amir Zakian*, Samad Lotfollahzadeh, Meysam Tehrani-Sharif, Kokab Faramarzian, Naser Gholami, Siros Nemati Delfani and Ali Kolivand
    Abstract: Nowadays, the role of pregnancy on antioxidant capacity of body in animals established in many studies. The aim of present study was to determine the correlation among b hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA), glucose, total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and protein profile pre and post-partum in shall sheep. In this study 112 heads sheep from shall breed in Qazvin city pre and postpartum to measurements amount of TAC, BHBA, glucose, protein profile and investigation of TAC modification were examined. The level of TAC prepartum significantly lower than postpartum (P< 0.03) and was found a negative correlation between BHBA and TAC pre (r = -0.731, P< 0.000) and post (r= -0.390, P< 0.003) partum. The concentration of TAC pre and post-partum with increase and decrease of BHBA changed, also were found a positive correlation between TAC and glucose pre(r= 0.683, P< 0.000) and post (r= 0.393, P< 0.003) partum. The value of total protein (P< 0.05), albumin (P< 0.05) and A/G ratio (P< 0.05) pre-partum were significantly higher than post-parturm, whereas globulin levels (P> 0.05) have not significant changed.
    Short Communication
    Jordan L Sauer, Lisa M. Freeman* and John E. Rush
    Abstract: The objective of this study was to measure dietary amino acids, choline, carnitine, serotonin, and ergovaline as possible dietary factors that could play a role in the pathophysiology of degenerative mitral valve disease (DMVD). Thirteen commercially available diets were selected for analysis, and were analyzed for macronutrients; amino acids; ergovaline; the indoleamines, 5HT and melatonin; as well as choline and free L-carnitine (n=12). There was a wide range in the concentrations of all analytes in the diets tested.No essential amino acids were below AAFCO Dog Food Nutrient Profile minimums.One diet was below the AAFCO Dog Food Nutrient Profile minimum for fat. Taurine, although not an essential amino acid for dogs, was below the AAFCO Cat Food Nutrient Profile minimum for taurine in 9 of 13 diets. Tryptophan ranged from 0.19-0.59% dry matter (median=0.28% dry matter). All 13 diets had undetectable ergovaline concentrations.One sample tested positive for 5HT, and melatonin was detected in 8 diets. There also was wide variation (3-fold and >100-fold difference, respectively) in choline and free L-carnitine concentrations among diets.Additional research is needed on the effects of varying dietary intake of tryptophan and other amino acids, 5HT, choline, and carnitine on cardiac valve metabolism.
    Case Report
    King Shimumbo Nalubamba*, Squarre David, Musso Munyeme, Harvey Kamboyi, Ngonda Saasa, Ethel Mkandawire and Hetron Mweemba Munang'andu4
    Abstract: Theileria parasites were detected in five apparently healthy free-ranging giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis Linnaeus, 1758) captured for translocation on a game ranch located approximately 60 km south west of Lusaka. Giemsa-stained blood smears examined under a light microscope showed characteristic oval and rod shaped intra-erythrocytic piroplasms. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products targeted on the 18S rRNA gene showed characteristic bands of Theileria spp. The average number of infected blood cells per field examined by light microscopy was estimated at 48.6% (n=50, SD±8.2%). The mean white blood cell count (WBC), red blood cell count (RBC), haemaglobin and packed cell volume (PCV)(%) for the five giraffes were estimated at 8.0 x 103/μl, 7.9 x 106/μl, 17.8 g/dL and 41.8%, respectively, being within the normal range of hematological values of free-ranging healthy giraffes. Tick species collected from the infected animals included Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, Rhipicephalus spp., Amblyomma variegatum and other Amblyomma species. To our knowledge, this is the first report of Theileria spp infection in giraffe in Zambia. These findings suggest that wildlife kept on game ranches could serve as carriers of Theileria piroplasms without expressing clinical signs of theileriosis even when infected with a high parasitemia. As such, it is likely that these wildlife reservoirs could play an important role on the epidemiology of theileriosis in Zambia, although detailed follow-up studies are required to determine the intra- and interspecies transmission among wildlife as well as between wildlife and livestock.
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