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  • ISSN: 2378-931X
    Volume 3, Issue 1
    Case Report
    A. Vila*, R Movilla, A Lloret, N Majo, A J Marco and X. Roura
    Abstract: Canine gastrointestinal infection by Leishmania presenting large bowel involvement has been reported to date. This case series describes two dogs suffering from severe chronic small bowel diarrhea. Duodenal biopsies demonstrated granulomatous infiltration with intracytoplasmatic corpuscles of Leishmania amastigotes. Furthermore one of the dogs was diagnosed with protein-losing enteropathy (PLE) based on the presence of multifocal dilation of intestinal crypts and hypoalbuminemia. To the author's knowledge, PLE associated to canine granulomatous duodenitis by Leishmania had not been previously reported. Dogs were successfully treated with meglumine antimoniate for at least one month and allopurinol as a long-term single agent. These findings suggest that leishmaniosis should be included in the differential diagnosis for dogs presenting chronic small bowel diarrhea or PLE, especially in endemic areas. Close monitoring of the dogs affected is highly recommended.
    César Fiel*, Pedro Steffan, Giselle Bernat and Eliana Riva
    Abstract: A field program to control multiple anthelmintic resistant worm infections in cattle of Argentina is described. In 2003 around 140 calves died as a consequence of high worm burdens despite the administration of monthly alternate treatments with ivermectin (IVM) or fenbendazole (FBZ). A fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) showed a clinical efficacy of 73%, 49.1% and 90.4% for IVM, FBZ and levamisole (LVM) respectively. An efficacy controlled test (ECT) showed that efficacy of IVM was 76.1% and 22.6% against Haemonchus spp. and Cooperia spp. respectively; for FBZ efficacy was: 0 % Ostertagia spp.; 28.3% Haemonchus spp. and 24.2% Cooperia spp.
    A rational control program based on epidemiological surveillance was established since 2004 up to 2012 based on nematode egg excretion and speciation of worms in coprocultures. The LVM was used when necessary.
    After ten years the results of a FECRT indicated a clinical efficacy of 79% for IVM (Cooperia spp. resistant), 89.4% for FBZ (Ostertagia spp. resistant) and 95.8% for LVM. The ECT showed that efficacy of IVM was =99% against Haemonchus spp. and Ostertagia spp. and 56% against Cooperia spp. The FBZ showed an efficacy of 100% against Haemonchus spp. and Cooperia spp, and 74% against Ostertagia spp. These findings demonstrate that resistance to IVM and FBZ persisted for Cooperia spp. and Ostertagia spp. respectively despite both compounds had not been used throughout a ten year period.
    The control programme successfully stopped mortality, minimized subclinical losses and reduced the number of treatments.
    Research Article
    Khodadad Pirali Kheirabadi, Amir Dehghani Samani*, Ali Shokohi and Hamed Sadeghi Dehsahraei
    Abstract: The main goal of this study is showing that parasites can be in uncommon locations than their common choice localities on their host's body. With this in mind, if we don't attention to this subject, it is possible that we infested by our pet's parasites and these parasites may carry the zoonotic pathogen. A damaged turtle (Testudo graeca ibera) with the break carapace referred to Faculty of veterinary medicine of Shahrekord University, for treatment the fracture of carapace. In first examination of carapace, 6 ticks removed from lesions and then samples were sent to the laboratory. Ticks species were identified and confirmed as Hyalomma aegyptium (Acari: Ixodidae). This study revealed that care about this parasite should be considered, because this parasites can infested many different animal even turtles, and could carry the important zoonotic pathogens. So we recommend to considering a suitable control of these parasites as a major problem in animals and important vectors of infectious agents to livestock and humans.
    Faisal Masoud*, Muhammad shahid mahmood and Iftikhar Hussain
    Abstract: Goat pox is an endemic disease all over the world and goat pox virus (GTPV) is the causative agent of disease. This disease has significant issues in livestock industry in terms of morbidity and mortality which ranges from 70-90% and 5-10%, respectively. Along with this, goat pox has impact on the international trade by putting the restriction on import and export of affected animals and their byproducts. Due to importance of disease current study was planned to determine the sero-prevalence and associated risk factors of disease among the small holders of goats in district Layyah, Punjab Pakistan. Thirty herds were included in this study from the different tehsils of district and a total of eighty seven blood samples were collected. Serum was harvested and single radial hemolysis test was performed to assess the sero-prevalence. A questionnaire was designed to determine the associated risk factors of the disease. The results of this study showed that disease was more in female (18.36%) than male animals (15.78%).Similarly breed wise results showed that disease was more in Daira-Din-Panah (DDP) (22.72%) followed by Beetal (20%) Teddy (14.28) and Nachi (10.52%) breeds of goat. As for as age of the animals is concerned the disease was more in young animals (25%) than adults (12%). It was also observed that 33.33% disease was in nomadic herds and 10% in settled herds.
    Short Communication
    Nejash Abdela Ahmed*
    Abstract: Ethiopia has the largest livestock population in Africa, but the contribution for the economic aspect of the country is still lowest amount and disease can be considered as major constrain. Ticks are the most important ectoparasites of livestock in tropical and sub-tropical areas. Ethiopia is not exceptional and ticks are responsible for severe economic losses both through the direct effects of blood sucking and indirectly as vectors of pathogens and toxins. Feeding by large numbers of ticks causes reduction in live weight gain and anaemia among domestic animals, while tick bites also reduce the quality of hides. However, the major losses caused by ticks are due to the ability to transmit protozoan, rickettsial and viral diseases of livestock, which are of great economic importance world-wide. This review concerns with general aspects of tick biology, the taxonomy, pathogenic effects and methods for the control of ticks. ticks belong to the suborder Ixodida, which contains a single super family, the Ixodoidea, which is divided into two major families, Argasidae (soft ticks) and Ixodidae (hard ticks), and the rare family Nuttalliellidae, with a single African species. The main tick genera found in domestic animals of Ethiopia are Amblyomma, Hyalomma, Rhipicephalus, Haemaphysalis and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus). Various breeds of cattle differ in their response to tick infestations. Bos indicus pure breeds and crossbreeds were reported to be more innately resistant than Bos Taurus breeds. The conventional method of controlling tick infestations in Ethiopia is application of acaricide, either by hand spraying, by hand dressing. Therefore, to minimize tick adverse effect appropriate and timely strategic control measures are crucial.
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