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  • ISSN: 2378-931X
    Volume 3, Issue 2
    Research Article
    Abebe Olani* and Dagim Bekele
    Abstract: Across-sectional study was conducted from Nov, 2013 to May, 2014 to assess the prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis and apparent density of tsetse flies in seven peasant associations of Lalo-Kile district of Kellem wollega zone, Western Ethiopia. The overall 7.78% prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis was recorded from 836 blood sample collected from selected animals using Buffy coat method. Trypanosoma congolense was the dominant species 36 (55.38%), while the low infection was mixed infection of Trypanosoma Congolense and trypanosome vivax 2 (3.07%). The highest prevalence 36(17.64%) of the disease was recorded in Merfo peasant association while the lowset 1(0.7%) was recorded in Kutala-Lube association. The mean packed cell volume (PCV) was 21.95% and 24.47% in parasitamic and aparasitemic animals, respectively. There were statistically significant difference (P<0.05) in prevalence of the disease between sexes and higher prevalence rate 26(9.42%) and 48(8.75%) in poor body condition scores and with > 3 years ages, respectively. Overall an apparent density of the flies was 4.3 f/t/d by using Monopyramidal, Biconical and Ngu traps. It indicated that, G. fuscipes fuscipes, G. pallidipes and G. morsitance submorsitance were tsetse flies species caught. Generally, this survey shows that frequent despite control strategy is implemented; trypanosomosis is still a core problem for livestock production in the study area, therefore, integrated and sustainable vector control approaches should be practiced.
    Deborah E. Linder*, Craig Datz and Lisa M. Freeman
    Abstract: This study tested if a therapeutic weight loss diet or presentation of diet to owners would influence owners' assessment of their dog's satiety. Twenty-three overweight, but otherwise healthy, dogs were fed their usual diet and then a study diet with both a positive and neutral description in a randomized crossover design. Diets were fed in amounts to meet dogs' resting energy requirements to maintain current body weight. Owners were asked questions on dogs' satiety (e.g., begging, acting hungry) on a 1-5 Likert Scale. When comparing the dogs' usual diet versus neutral description of the study diet and positive vs neutral descriptions of the study diet, there were no statistically significant differences for any survey questions (P = 0.16-0.75; P = 0.31-0.99, respectively). Wide variation in owner perception was noted for all dog begging behaviors and satiety. Based on this wide variation, individualization of dog weight loss programs could improve success.
    Carrau T*, Pérez D, Silva LM, Macias J, Martinez-Carrasco C, Taubert A, Hermosilla C and Ruiz de Ybáñez R
    Abstract: The present study was carried out on the occurrence of a post parturient rise of Eimeria spp. in breeding ewes grazing in natural pastures. The research was performed in a dairy flock in the municipality of Sangonera, Murcia (Southeast Spain). A total of 216 faecal samples recovered from 20 ewes and 35 lambs of the Manchega breed were analyzed between December 2014 and March 2015. The analyses to quantify oocysts per gram of faeces (OPG) and to identify Eimeria species were conducted at the Veterinary Faculty of the University of Murcia. Nine species of Eimeria were identified: E. ovinoidalis (39.8%), E. parva (22.1%), E. weybridgensis (13.5%), E. crandallis (9.4%), E. ahsata (4.6%), E. pallida (3.6%), E. bakuensis (3.5%), E. granulosa (3.4%) and E. faurei (0.1%). Eimeria ovinoidalis, E. parva and E. weybridgensis were the most frequent species but only E. ovinoidalis showed highest oocyst shedding after parturition (P < 0.05). Significant differences in OPG counts were found between before and after lambing weeks (P < 0.05). The detection of several Eimeria species, in particular E. ovinoidalis, suggests that Eimeria spp. probably have an important pathogenic potential in dairy sheep in Murcia. Moreover, the presence of a post parturient rise in Eimeria oocyst shedding indicates that ewes may play an important epidemiologic role in the study area, and the design of control measures will reduce infection of lambs, lower mortality and increase the productivity of the flocks.
    Susan J. Baigent*, Maria Jamli, Alison V. Turner, Sarah C. Gilbert, and Venugopal K. Nair
    Abstract: The protective efficacy of a non-replicating Adenovirus serotype 5, expressing the immunogenic envelope glycoprotein B (Ad5-gB) of Marek's disease virus, was investigated in a vaccine-challenge model for Marek's disease in experimental chickens. In ovo vaccination with Ad5-gB, with or without a second vaccination post-hatch, was compared with pCVI988 (a clone of the gold-standard CVI988 Marek's disease vaccine). In ovo vaccination with Ad5-gB, without the second vaccination, gave a protective index of 37.5%, but did not reduce replication, shedding or transmission of virulent virus. In ovo vaccination followed by a post-hatch vaccination with Ad5-gB, was as protective as pCVI988 against mortality and Marek's disease lesions (100% protection) and, like pCVI988, efficiently reduced the level of virulent virus in the blood of chickens. However, although this double-dose Ad5-gB vaccination delayed the onset of shedding of virulent virus, it did not inhibit shedding and was less effective than pCVI988 in reducing shedding and transmission of virulent virus. Further optimisation of Ad5-gB dose, administration route and time of vaccination could lead to trials as a potential vectored vaccine candidate for Marek's disease, with a number of advantages over the current live cell-associated vaccines: no requirement for maintenance of a cold chain during vaccine preparation and administration, no horizontal spread, reduced selection pressure for highly virulent virus, and no possibility of reversion to virulence.
    Review Article
    Robert Armon*, Daniel Gold, Udi Zuckerman, and Eyal Kurzbaum
    Abstract: Cryptosporidium, formerly classified to subclass Coccidia has been relocated to genus Gregarina which includes free living stages, enabling host-free multiplication and therefore may constitute an additional risk factor for human infection. The free stage of this parasitic protozoon, the oocyst, is incredibly durable under various environmental conditions, elucidating its long survival potential. The present review describes, based on published literature, the survival and behavior of Cryptosporidium oocysts in water, soil and other environmental surroundings as related to public health and infection prevention. As a zoonotic disease, cryptosporidiosis starts by infecting the intestinal tract of a large variety of mammals (~152 species) including humans. The excretion rate of oocysts (Cryptosporidium environmental stage) is high and favors the spread of this parasite to water and food sources. Such an extensive number is highly supportive for the wide spread of the parasite. Furthermore, a recent publication revealed that Cryptosporidium is not only an intracellular parasite but is also able to form a large or gigantic gamont-like stage-as additional extracellular life stage in vivo, where biofilm on gut cell surfaces may support Cryptosporidium growth and multiplication without the prerequisite for host cell invasion (inside the cell it acquires a unique epicellular location). This newly reported feature raises new question about its environmental survival. The agricultural link is obvious and its environmental impact involves soil, water and food once untreated waste water and effluents are applied for irrigation. These sources should be monitored for presence of Cryptosporidium to prevent infection and disease, and measures should be taken, such as water filtration, to prevent its spread to extended populations.
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